Old Europe 1
Neolittisk tid – Sørvest Asia
Neolittiske kulturer – Sørvest Asia
Neolittisk tid – Europa
Tidlig neolittiske kulturer i Europa
Franchthi Cave (20th to 3rd millennium) Greece. First European Neolithic site.
Sesklo culture (7th millennium) Greece.
Starcevo-Criş culture (Starčevo I, Körös, Criş, Central Balkans, 7th to 5th millennia)
Dudeşti culture (6th millennium)
Mellom-neolittiske kulturer i Europa
Vinča culture (6th to 3rd millennia)
Linear Ceramic culture (6th to 5th millennia)
Comb Ceramic culture (6th to 3rd millennia)
Ertebølle culture (5th to 3rd millennia)
Corded Ware culture
Eneolittiske kulturer i Europa
Cucuteni-Trypillian culture (5th millennium)
Lengyel culture (5th millennium)
Varna culture (5th millennium)
Funnelbeaker culture (4th millennium)
Gravetti kulturens utstrekning
Spredning av jordbruket til Europa:
A new paper in Science solidifies the case for migration as the cause for the diffusion of agriculture in Europe. Discontinuity between early Neolithic farmers and Mesolithic foragers in Central Europe had provided strong hints about this discontinuity, and these were confirmed by other ancient European DNA, e.g., from Treilles, or the Tyrolean Iceman. The case now appears irrefutable, that people not ideas were involved in the spread farming to the northern fringes of Europe.
– 18kyr (16kyr BC) – Maximum Extent of Last Ice Age
– 12kyr (10kyr BC) ice has retreated start of new colonisation of Europe from the 3 resistance pockets : I from Balkans, R1A from the north of Black Sea
– 10kyr (8kyr BC) – End of Last Ice Age. Regarding R1B I see 2 theories. 1) R1B spread from resistance pocket in Spain. 2) R1B appeared much later coming from north of Iran, Spain resistance pocket associated by Maciamo/Eupedia with smaller La Almagra Culture, much smaller E-M81 population which was not big enough to spread North.
– 8kyr (6kyr BC) same climate as today – arrival of neolithic J2 farmers from Middle east in the Balkans
– 7kyr (5kyr BC) Cucuteni Culture and Vinca Culture / Script
– 5500BC most of Europa was I haplogroup! R1A was only in the North of Black Sea while R1B was still in Asia. The neolithical farmers from Middle East E-V13 and J2 had at that time significant influence in Balkans but genetically, ethnically I was still predominant in the Balkans also. Magna Italy (Printed Cardium Pottery Culture) and Magna Dacia (Thessalian Neolithic Culture) have same I2 origin. J2 migrators were small in numbers compared to original I2 populations in the Balkans, J2 had technical and cultural influence but were absorbed by I2
– 4000-3500BC – most of Europe is still I, but R1a is entering Europe through Moldavia, coming round south by the Black Sea. R1a preparing to enter in the Balkans from Turkey.
– 2800-2500BC – R1a is pushing west in Central Europe while R1b is entering Europe thorugh the Balkans. Most Western Europe is covered by Megalithic Cultures with I populations.
– 2500-2000 – Conquest of Western Europe by R1b! Corded Ware Culture in North Germany, Poland, Ukrajna and Russia – R1a
Det gamle Europa:
Europe in ca. 4500-4000 BC
Europe in ca. 4000-3500 BC
Map of Neolithic cultures in Europe from approximately 5,500 to 6,000 years ago
Map of late Neolithic and early Bronze Age cultures in Europe from approximately 5,000 to 4,500 years ago
Map of early to middle Bronze Age cultures in Europe from approximately 4,500 to 4,000 years ago
Map of middle Bronze Age cultures in Europe from approximately 4,000 to 3,500 years ago