Cradle of Civilization

A Blog about the Birth of Our Civilisation and Development

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  • The Fertile Crescent

    The Fertile Crescent is a term for an old fertile area north, east and west of the Arabian Desert in Southwest Asia. The Mesopotamian valley and the Nile valley fall under this term even though the mountain zone around Mesopotamia is the natural zone for the transition in a historical sense.

    As a result of a number of unique geographical factors the Fertile Crescent have an impressive history of early human agricultural activity and culture. Besides the numerous archaeological sites with remains of skeletons and cultural relics the area is known primarily for its excavation sites linked to agricultural origins and development of the Neolithic era.

    It was here, in the forested mountain slopes of the periphery of this area, that agriculture originated in an ecologically restricted environment. The western zone and areas around the upper Euphrates gave growth to the first known Neolithic farming communities with small, round houses , also referred to as Pre Pottery Neolithic A (PPNA) cultures, which dates to just after 10,000 BC and include areas such as Jericho, the world’s oldest city.

    During the subsequent PPNB from 9000 BC these communities developed into larger villages with farming and animal husbandry as the main source of livelihood, with settlement in the two-story, rectangular house. Man now entered in symbiosis with grain and livestock species, with no opportunity to return to hunter – gatherer societies.

    The area west and north of the plains of the Euphrates and Tigris also saw the emergence of early complex societies in the much later Bronze Age (about 4000 BC). There is evidence of written culture and early state formation in this northern steppe area, although the written formation of the states relatively quickly shifted its center of gravity into the Mesopotamian valley and developed there. The area is therefore in very many writers been named “The Cradle of Civilization.”

    The area has experienced a series of upheavals and new formation of states. When Turkey was formed in the aftermath of the genocide against the Pontic Greeks, Armenians and Assyrians perpetrated by the Young Turks during the First World War it is estimated that two-thirds to three-quarters of all Armenians and Assyrians in the region died, and the Pontic Greeks was pushed to Greece.

    Israel was created out of the Ottoman Empire and the conquering of the Palestinian terretories. The existence of large Arab nation states from the Maghreb to the Levant has since represented a potential threat to Israel which should be neutralised when opportunities arise.

    This line of thinking was at the heart of David Ben Gurion’s policies in the 1950s which sought to exacerbate tensions between Christians and Muslims in the Lebanon for the fruits of acquiring regional influence by the dismembering the country and the possible acquisition of additional territory.

    The Christians are now being systematically targeted for genocide in Syria according to Vatican and other sources with contacts on the ground among the besieged Christian community.

    According to reports by the Vatican’s Fides News Agency collected by the Centre for the Study of Interventionism, the US-backed Free Syrian Army rebels and ever more radical spin-off factions are sacking Christian churches, shooting Christians dead in the street, broadcasting ultimatums that all Christians must be cleansed from the rebel-held villages, and even shooting priests.

    It is now time that the genocide against the Pontic Greeks, Assyrians and Armenians is being recognized, that the Israeli occupation, settlements and violence against the Palestinians stop, and that the various minorities in the area start to live their lifes in peace – without violence and threats from majority populations, or from the West, and then specificially from the US.

    War in the Fertile Crescent
    https://aratta.wordpress.com/2013/11/13/war-in-the-fertile-crescent

    Everyone is free to use the text on this blog as they want. There is no copyright etc. This because knowledge is more important than rules and regulations.

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Archive for the ‘Celts’ Category

Origin of the Celts

Posted by Sjur Cappelen Papazian on November 2, 2013

The search for the Celtic descent of the Irish will cover a huge time span and an immense geographical area. This quest starts around 2500 BCE on the Iberian Peninsula with the Bell Beakers, and via the Hallstatt and La Tène culture of Central Europe we will finally arrive on Ireland somewhere around 50 BCE.

Culture – Era

Bell Beakers: 2600-1900 BC

Únětice culture: 2300-1600 BC

Tumulus culture: 1600-1200 BC

Urnfield culture: 1200-750 BC

Hallstatt culture: 1200-500 BC

La Tène culture: 500- 50 BC

Out of reach of the Roman culture, which dominated the European mainland and the south of Britain, Ireland became some sort of sanctuary for the Celtic culture in which the Ogham Alphabet and the Brehon Law blossomed and flourished.

We guarantee that the journey is educational yet pleasant, but we can not claim that our impression of things is the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth. As usual in these matters theories are disputed by scientists and new points of view are published on an almost daily basis. We are not the right persons to settle the disputes and it is impossible for us to keep pace with every new theory.

Furthermore we have to inform you that the succession of cultures is just an academic model enabling us to grasp the course of European history during the Bronze Age. In the absence of eyewitness reports this model solely relies on archaeological excavations and interpretations. Obviously this unilateral approach is not flawless. An archaeologist can draw a truthful floor plan of a dwelling, but the exact appearance of the roof is – notwithstanding his higher education – guesswork. We can pursue this comparison to the terms culture and tribes.

Until the fifth century BCE we can only tell the result of the burial ceremonies of the various cultures (i.e. people were buried in flat graves, beneath tumuli or cremated), but we have no idea what took place at the graveside (i.e. who attended the burial, was the burial a merry passage rite or a mournful final farewell ceremony, did they prey and if so how and to whom or what).

It is possible that, although the result of the ceremony was similar over a large geographical area, the ceremony itself varied from valley to valley and from hilltop to hilltop. The difference between result and reason is – a bit simplified – the difference between a culture and a tribe. As a result it is virtually impossible to identify tribes in Central Europe before they made contact with the writing Greeks in the fifth century BCE.

Origin of the Celts

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