Cradle of Civilization

A Blog about the Birth of Our Civilisation and Development

  • Sjur C Papazian

  • FB: Sjur Papazian

  • Recent Posts

  • Categories

  • Armenian Eternal Symbol

  • Forget-me-not

  • The Fertile Crescent

    The Fertile Crescent is a term for an old fertile area north, east and west of the Arabian Desert in Southwest Asia. The Mesopotamian valley and the Nile valley fall under this term even though the mountain zone around Mesopotamia is the natural zone for the transition in a historical sense.

    As a result of a number of unique geographical factors the Fertile Crescent have an impressive history of early human agricultural activity and culture. Besides the numerous archaeological sites with remains of skeletons and cultural relics the area is known primarily for its excavation sites linked to agricultural origins and development of the Neolithic era.

    It was here, in the forested mountain slopes of the periphery of this area, that agriculture originated in an ecologically restricted environment. The western zone and areas around the upper Euphrates gave growth to the first known Neolithic farming communities with small, round houses , also referred to as Pre Pottery Neolithic A (PPNA) cultures, which dates to just after 10,000 BC and include areas such as Jericho, the world’s oldest city.

    During the subsequent PPNB from 9000 BC these communities developed into larger villages with farming and animal husbandry as the main source of livelihood, with settlement in the two-story, rectangular house. Man now entered in symbiosis with grain and livestock species, with no opportunity to return to hunter – gatherer societies.

    The area west and north of the plains of the Euphrates and Tigris also saw the emergence of early complex societies in the much later Bronze Age (about 4000 BC). There is evidence of written culture and early state formation in this northern steppe area, although the written formation of the states relatively quickly shifted its center of gravity into the Mesopotamian valley and developed there. The area is therefore in very many writers been named “The Cradle of Civilization.”

    The area has experienced a series of upheavals and new formation of states. When Turkey was formed in the aftermath of the genocide against the Pontic Greeks, Armenians and Assyrians perpetrated by the Young Turks during the First World War it is estimated that two-thirds to three-quarters of all Armenians and Assyrians in the region died, and the Pontic Greeks was pushed to Greece.

    Israel was created out of the Ottoman Empire and the conquering of the Palestinian terretories. The existence of large Arab nation states from the Maghreb to the Levant has since represented a potential threat to Israel which should be neutralised when opportunities arise.

    This line of thinking was at the heart of David Ben Gurion’s policies in the 1950s which sought to exacerbate tensions between Christians and Muslims in the Lebanon for the fruits of acquiring regional influence by the dismembering the country and the possible acquisition of additional territory.

    The Christians are now being systematically targeted for genocide in Syria according to Vatican and other sources with contacts on the ground among the besieged Christian community.

    According to reports by the Vatican’s Fides News Agency collected by the Centre for the Study of Interventionism, the US-backed Free Syrian Army rebels and ever more radical spin-off factions are sacking Christian churches, shooting Christians dead in the street, broadcasting ultimatums that all Christians must be cleansed from the rebel-held villages, and even shooting priests.

    It is now time that the genocide against the Pontic Greeks, Assyrians and Armenians is being recognized, that the Israeli occupation, settlements and violence against the Palestinians stop, and that the various minorities in the area start to live their lifes in peace – without violence and threats from majority populations, or from the West, and then specificially from the US.

    War in the Fertile Crescent

    Everyone is free to use the text on this blog as they want. There is no copyright etc. This because knowledge is more important than rules and regulations.

  • Archives

Armenia – Animals

Because of Turkifization Turkey has removed the Armenian nams of places and animals – what is Armenian cat they call Turkish.

Armenian Dog:



Aralezes (also Aralezner in plural; in Armenian: Արալեզ) are dog-like creatures, or spirits, in Armenian cultural beliefs or in the Armenian mythology, who live in the sky, or on mount Massis (Mount Ararat), according to other imaginations.

Armenians believed that aralezes descended from the sky to lick the wounds of fallen or injured warriors of armenian troops and heroes so they could relive or resurrect. Name of this spirit-dogs was taken from Ara the Beatiful as they were praised with Ara the Beautiful and Shamiram (Semiramis) in Old Armenia.

According to Armenian historians, when Mushegh Mamikonyan died, his relatives placed his corpse on a tower, hoping that aralezes would lick and revive him. Also, a similar event had taken place before this, when aralezes had licked and revived Ara the Beautiful, king of Armenia, that was killed in war with Assyria (Semiramis loved him and let warriors to brought him).

In the Armenian history, is told that the last event was probably a sort of lie, uttered by Shamiram, Ara the Beautiful’s lover, who had killed Ara accidentally during war, and had told Ara’s people that his corpse was placed on mountains, where aralezes would revive him. But she had chosen a man who looked like Ara, had dressed him like Ara, and had lied to the people that this last was alive.

Armenian Gampr is a landrace breed native to the Armenian Highlands. It sits within the Ovcharka group of livestock guardian dogs which can be found throughout the Transcaucasus area. Gamprs differ by their vital capacity, independence, mind, strong self-preservation instinct, capacity for trustworthy defense and protection of livestock, and exclusive friendliness to humans. The Gamprs are very tied to people, especially those dogs that live in human houses, considering themselves a family or pack member.

The modern Gampr has changed little within the history of its existence in Armenian Highlands. It is one of few natural breeds not subjected to hard selection by phenotype. They preserved the genetic variation that other dog breeds had initially. This genetic variation was promoted by spontaneous and, in some cases, intentional periodic matings with locally indigenous wolves (still present).

This breed’s head is large, well-outlined and well-developed but lacks prominent cheekbones. The back is wide, straight, muscular and strong. At the withers, the height in male dogs is 65 centimetres (26 in) or more, and in female dogs is 62 centimetres (24 in) or more. Weight corresponds to the total size of the dog, and usually varies from 45 to 60 kilograms (99 to 132 lb).

The Armenian Gampr has a well-developed undercoat, in order to protect it under harsh conditions. Depending upon the coat length, there are two types: long-haired, with long top hairs, and short-haired, with dense, relatively short hair. A brown or piebald coat is undesirable according to the breed standard.

Gampr dogs are not trained, instead performing the necessary functions naturally. The Armenian word “Gampr” means “watchdog”, but the same breed may instead be called a “gelkheht” (from “gel” – “wolf” and “khekhtel” – “to choke”) if it is predisposed to be used as a wolfhound; a bear-hunting dog is known as “archashoon” (“bear-dog”); an avalanche dog is named “potorkashoon”, and a shepherd dog is named “hovvashoon”.

The Armenian Gampr is not recognized by any of the major kennel clubs or other fancier organisations around the world. The path to recognition by these larger organizations is begun by small breed clubs who later apply to the larger breed clubs for recognition.

In 2006, Rohana Mayer began the Armenian Gampr Club of America in order to begin the conservation of the breed. The AGCA has created a registry and pedigree database including health information, and evaluations for individuals within the breed to maintain consistency with historically correct type, and breed dogs of the highest quality. Rohana Mayer collected DNA samples, and paid for the genetic analysis of the breed with Embark Vet, the most thorough and in-depth dog DNA analysis group in the world.

As an offshoot of the Armenian Gampr Club of America, The Armenian Gampr Club of Canada began soon after. In April 2011, a new organisation called the International Kennel Union (IKU), but acts in 17 countries, including Spain, Bulgaria, Greece, Armenia, Russia, Ukraine, Georgia and others, officially recognized the Armenian Gampr as Armenia’s national dog breed.

Armenian Shepherds: the Gampr – Deified as Aralez

Armenian Cat:

File:Turkish Van Cat.jpg

Van was an Armenian city, but were cleansed through the genocide

Armenian Horse:

The Mitanni were closely associated with horses. The name of the country of Ishuwa, which might have had a substantial Hurrian population, meant “horse-land”. A famous text discovered at Hattusa deals with the training of horses. The man who was responsible for the horse-training was a Hurrian called Kikkuli.

Kikkuli, “master horse trainer (assussanni, virtually Sanskrit aśva-sana-) of the land Mitanni” (LÚA-AŠ-ŠU-UŠ-ŠA-AN-NI ŠA KUR URUMI-IT-TA-AN-NI) was the author of a chariot horse training text written in the Hittite language, dating to the Hittite New Kingdom (around 1400 BC). The text is notable both for the information it provides about the development of Indo-European languages and for its content.

The terminology used in connection with horses contains many Indo-Aryan loan-words (Mayrhofer, 1974). Some theonyms, proper names and other terminology of the Mitanni exhibit an Indo-Aryan superstrate, suggesting that an Indo-Aryan elite imposed itself over the Hurrian population in the course of the Indo-Aryan expansion.



Horse breeding in Armenia

Armenia the Land of the Horse

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s

%d bloggers like this: