Mehrgarh – Indus sivilisasjonen
The South Asian Stone Age (7000–3000 BC)
The South Asian Bronze age (3000–1300 BC)
The South Asian Iron age (1200–26 BC)
Figure 3. (A) Sampling sites of wild barley accessions collected in Israel and Jordan near the Syria border. Asterisks indicate lines with close genetic distances to the cultivated gene pool. Red dots indicate sites of collection of wild barley lines with BKn-3 allele I. (B) Flow of alleles of the BKn-3 gene from wild barley populations to cultivated germplasm. The borders of primary habitats of wild barley in the Fertile Crescent are represented by the dotted red line. Arrows indicate gene substitutions as barley domestication moved to the East and the development of western landraces.
Figure 4. The neolithic sites indicated in Morrell and Clegg illustrating probable domestications sites of barley: Jericho (Palestine), Abu Hureyra (Syria), Jarmo (Iraq), Ali Kosh (Iran), Jeitun (Turkmenistan), and Mehrgarh (Pakistan).
The geographic distribution of sampled wild barley accessions and the locations of the human Neolithic sites mentioned in the text that contain early evidence of domesticated barley. The 25 wild barley accessions where all 18 loci were sequenced are indicated by filled circles. An additional 20 accessions (see Materials and Methods) were sequenced at four loci and are indicated by asterisks. Samples with majority assignment to the eastern cluster are shown in red, and samples with majority assignment to western cluster are shown in blue. The Neolithic sites indicated include Jericho (Palestine), Abu Hureyra (Syria), Jarmo (Iraq), Ali Kosh (Iran), Jeitun (Turkmenistan), and Mehrgarh (Pakistan).
Distribution map of archaeobotanical finds of caper in the Old World. (1) Tell Abu Hureyra; (2) Tell Mureybit; (3) Franchti Cave; (4) Nehal Hemar Cave; (5) Ras Shamra; (6) Tell Asward; (7) Tell es-Sawwan; (8) Jeitun; (9) Choga Mami; (10) Malyan; (11) Es-Sweyhat; (12) Corinth; (13) Yanghai Tombs; (14) Berenike; (15) Mons Claudiann; (16) Shenshef; (17) Bruge.
Namazga-Tepe or Namazga-depe, is a Bronze Age (BMAC) archaeological site in Turkmenistan, some 100 km from Aşgabat, near the border to Iran. Excavated by Vadim Mikhailovich Masson, Viktor Sarianidi, and I. N. Khlopin from the 1950s, the site set the chronology for the Bronze Age sites in Turkmenistan (Namazga III-VI)
- Namazga IV around 2500 BCE shows proto-urban and village settlement patterns.
- Namazga V around 2000-1600 BCE is the period of “urban revolution” following the Anatolian model with little or no irrigation. Namazgadepe emerges as the production and probable governmental center, covering some 60 hectares, with Altyndepe likely a secondary capital. Around 1600 BCE, Altyndepe is abandoned, and Namazgadepe shrinks to a fraction of its former size.
- Namazga VI in the Late Bronze Age 1600-1000 BCE is characterized by the incursion of nomadic pastoralists from the Alekseyevka culture and/or Srubna culture.
Altyndepe, the Turkmen for “Golden Hill”, is a Bronze Age (BMAC) site in Turkmenistan, near Aşgabat, inhabited in the 3rd to 2nd millennia BC, abandoned around 1600 BC.
Namazga V and Altyndepe were in contact with the Late Harappan culture (ca. 2000-1600 BC), and Masson (1988) tends to identify the culture as Proto-Dravidian. The site is notable for the remains of its “proto-Zoroastrian” ziggurat.
Models of two-wheeled carts from c. 3000 BC found at Altyn-Depe are the earliest complete evidence of wheeled transport in Central Asia, though model wheels have come from contexts possibly somewhat earlier. Judging by the type of harness, carts were initially pulled by oxen, or a bull. However camels were domesticated within the BMAC. A model of a cart drawn by a camel of c. 2200 BC was found at Altyn-Depe.
Anau (Annau) ligger 8 kilometer sørøst for Ashgabat. Spor av bosetting kan spores tilbake til 3000 f.vt.
Gonur Tepe is an archaeological site in Turkmenistan that was inhabited by Indo-Iranian peoples until sometime in the 2nd millennium BCE dating back to 2500 bc. The site was discovered by Greek-Russian archaeologist Viktor Sarianidi. Sarianidi discovered a palace, a fortified mud-brick enclosure, and temples with fire altars which he believes were dedicated to the Zoroastrian religion.
Sarianidi also found what appears to be the boiler for the ritual drink soma, which is mentioned in the Rigveda and haoma as in the avesta. Sarianidi says he also found dishes with traces of cannabis, poppy and ephedrine. According to Sarianidi, this discovery strengthens the theory that these were the ingredients of soma. The site was most likely abandoned after the Murghab River’s course moved to the west.
Mehrgarh – Indus sivilisasjonen
Extent of the Indus Valley Civilization imposed over modern borders
Hovedsentrene for Indusdal sivilisasjonen
A figurine from Mehrgarh, c. 3000 BC
“The sacred town and temples of Dwarka,” from Grindlay’s ‘Scenery, Costumes and Architecture chiefly on the Western Side of India’, London, 1826-30
The battle between the Haihaya emperor Arjuna Kartavirya and Parashurama