Cradle of Civilization

A Blog about the Birth of Our Civilisation and Development

Armenia – History 3

Kummanni was the name of the Anatolian kingdom of Kizzuwatna. Its location is uncertain, but is believed to be near the classical settlement of Comana in Cappadocia.

Kummanni was the major cult center of the Hurrian chief deity, Tešup. Its Hurrian name Kummeni simply translates as “The Shrine.”

The city persisted into the Early Iron Age, and appears as Kumme in Assyrian records. It was located on the edge of Assyrian influence in the far northeastern corner of Mesopotamia, separating Assyria from Urartu and the highlands of southeastern Anatolia. Kumme was still considered a holy city in Assyrian times, both in Assyria and in Urartu]. Adad-nirari II, after re-conquering the city, made sacrifices to “Adad of Kumme.” The three chief deities in the Urartian pantheon were “the god of Ardini, the god of Kumenu, and the god of Tushpa.”

Kizzuwatna, is the name of an ancient Anatolian kingdom in the 2nd millennium BC. It was situated in the highlands of southeastern Anatolia, near the Gulf of İskenderun in modern-day Turkey. It encircled the Taurus Mountains and the Ceyhan river. The center of the kingdom was the city of Kummanni, situated in the highlands. In a later era, the same region was known as Cilicia.

The country possessed valuable resources, such as silver mines in the Taurus Mountains. The slopes of the mountain range are still partly covered by woods. Annual winter rains made agriculture possible in the area at a very early date (see Çatal Hüyük). The plains at the lower course of the Ceyhan river provided rich cultivated fields.

In antiquity, Cilicia was the south coastal region of Asia Minor, south of the central Anatolian plateau. It existed as a political entity from Hittite times into the Byzantine empire. Cilicia extends inland from the southeastern coast of modern Turkey, due north and northeast of the island of Cyprus.

The Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia, also known as the Cilician Armenia, Kingdom of Cilician Armenia or New Armenia, was an independent principality formed during the High Middle Ages by Armenian refugees fleeing the Seljuk invasion of Armenia. Located outside of the Armenian Highland and distinct from the Armenian Kingdom of Antiquity, it was centered in the Cilicia region northwest of the Gulf of Alexandretta, in what is today southern Turkey.

Armenian presence in Cilicia dates back to the first century BC, when under Tigranes the Great, the Kingdom of Armenia expanded and conquered a vast region in the Levant.

Det armenske kongedømmet Kilikia

Det armenske kongedømmet Kilikia var en stat dannet i middelalderen av armenske flyktninger som flyktet fra seldsjukkenes invasjon av Armenia. Det lå ved Iskenderunbukta i Middelhavet i det som i dag er det sørlige Tyrkia. Kongdeømmet forble uavhengig fra rundt 1078 til 1375.

Kilikia ble grunnlagt av rubenide-dynastiet, en sidegren av det større bagratid-dynastiet som ved forskjellige tidspunkt satt på tronen i Armenia og Georgia. Hovedstaden var Sis. Kilikia var en sterk alliert av de europeiske korsfarerne og så på seg selv som kristendommens bastion i øst. Det fungerte også som samlingspunkt for armensk nasjonalisme og kultur, siden Armenia var under fremmed okkupasjon på denne tiden.

Kong Levon av Armenia hjalp til med å bygge opp Kilikias økonomi og handel, etter hvert som handelen med europeiske handelsmenn vokste. Betydelige byer og festninger i kongedømmet inkluderte havnen Korikos, Lampron, Partzerpert, Vahka (dagens Feke), Hromkla, Tarsus, Anazarbe, Til Hamdoun, Mamistra (dagens Misis), Adana og havnen Aias som fungerte som en vestlig terminal mot øst. Pisanerne, genoveserne og venezianerne etablerte kolonier i Aias gjennom avtaler med det armenske Kilikia i det 13. århundret. Marco Polo dro for eksempel ut på sin reise til Kina fra Aias i 1271.

Det armenske kongedømmet Kilikia

1080 Rupenian Principality established in Cilicia

Roupen I 1080 – 1095
Gostandin I 1095 – 1099

Cilician Armenians assists First Crusade 1098-1099

Toros I 1100 – 1129
Prince Levon I 1129 – 1138

Byzantine occupation 1138 – 1144

Toros II 1145 – 1167

Second Crusade 1147 – 1149

Louis VII of France, Queen Eleanor of Aquitaine, Emperor Conrad III 

Roupen II 1167 – 1169
Mleh 1169 – 1174
Roupen II 1174 – 1187

Roupenian Dynasty

Levon II Prince 1187 – 1198
Levon I King 1199 – 1219

Third Crusade passes through Cilician Armenia 1189-1192

Queen Zabel 1219 – 1222
Philip of Antioch 1222 – 1225

Hetoumian Dynasty

Hetoum I 1226 – 1270

Hetoum I visits Mangu Khan at Karakorum 1253-1256

Mamluk Raid Cilicia 1266-1269

Levon II 1270 – 1289

Mamluk Raid of Cilicia 1272

Hetoum II 1289 – 1293 / 1295 – 1296 / 1299 – 1306
Toros (Prince & Regent) 1293 – 1295
Smpad 1296 – 1298
Gosdantin II 1298 – 1299
Levon III 1301 – 1307 (Co-ruler from 1301-1306)

Mamluk Raid of Cilicia 1301
Hetoum II and Levon III killed by Mongol general Pilarghou 1307

Oshin 1307 – 1320

Defeat of the Mamluk at Ayas 1320

Levon IV 1320 – 1342

Lusignan Dynasty

Guy Lusignan (Gosdantin II) 1342 – 1344

Neghirian Dynasty

Gosdantin III 1344 – 1363

Mamluks capture Adana and Tarsus and devastate Sis 1360

Levon the Usurper 1363-1365
Gosdantin IV 1365-1373

Lusignan Dynasty

Levon V Lusignan 1374-1375

Cilician Armenia conquered by Mamluk 1375 – End of kingdom

File:119Kilikian1080-1199.gifFile:1263 Mediterranean Sea.svg

Fájl:Cilician Armenia-en.svg

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https://i0.wp.com/nvtour.am/pageimages/maps/Kilikia.jpg

Festningen Korikos bygget på 1300-tallet

Mamure Castle:

File:HemiteKalesi1.jpg

Kunst:

File:Toros Roslin Manrankar.jpg

Et illustrert manuskript av Johannes av Toros Roslin, fullført i 1268.

File:DisasterOfMari1266.JPG

Disaster Of Mari, 1266

File:LeonIIQueenGueraneAndTheirFiveChildren1272.jpg

Leon II, Queen Guerane and Their Five Children, 1272

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Konstantin III av Armenia på hans trone med malteserriddere. Maleri fra 1844 av Henri Delaborde.

King Hetum I of the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia (reigned from 1226 to 1270). Reproduction of a medieval Armenian miniature from Matenadaran—Armenia’s Institute of Ancient Manuscripts

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