Cradle of Civilization

A Blog about the Birth of Our Civilisation and Development

  • Sjur C Papazian

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  • The Fertile Crescent

    The Fertile Crescent is a term for an old fertile area north, east and west of the Arabian Desert in Southwest Asia. The Mesopotamian valley and the Nile valley fall under this term even though the mountain zone around Mesopotamia is the natural zone for the transition in a historical sense.

    As a result of a number of unique geographical factors the Fertile Crescent have an impressive history of early human agricultural activity and culture. Besides the numerous archaeological sites with remains of skeletons and cultural relics the area is known primarily for its excavation sites linked to agricultural origins and development of the Neolithic era.

    It was here, in the forested mountain slopes of the periphery of this area, that agriculture originated in an ecologically restricted environment. The western zone and areas around the upper Euphrates gave growth to the first known Neolithic farming communities with small, round houses , also referred to as Pre Pottery Neolithic A (PPNA) cultures, which dates to just after 10,000 BC and include areas such as Jericho, the world’s oldest city.

    During the subsequent PPNB from 9000 BC these communities developed into larger villages with farming and animal husbandry as the main source of livelihood, with settlement in the two-story, rectangular house. Man now entered in symbiosis with grain and livestock species, with no opportunity to return to hunter – gatherer societies.

    The area west and north of the plains of the Euphrates and Tigris also saw the emergence of early complex societies in the much later Bronze Age (about 4000 BC). There is evidence of written culture and early state formation in this northern steppe area, although the written formation of the states relatively quickly shifted its center of gravity into the Mesopotamian valley and developed there. The area is therefore in very many writers been named “The Cradle of Civilization.”

    The area has experienced a series of upheavals and new formation of states. When Turkey was formed in the aftermath of the genocide against the Pontic Greeks, Armenians and Assyrians perpetrated by the Young Turks during the First World War it is estimated that two-thirds to three-quarters of all Armenians and Assyrians in the region died, and the Pontic Greeks was pushed to Greece.

    Israel was created out of the Ottoman Empire and the conquering of the Palestinian terretories. The existence of large Arab nation states from the Maghreb to the Levant has since represented a potential threat to Israel which should be neutralised when opportunities arise.

    This line of thinking was at the heart of David Ben Gurion’s policies in the 1950s which sought to exacerbate tensions between Christians and Muslims in the Lebanon for the fruits of acquiring regional influence by the dismembering the country and the possible acquisition of additional territory.

    The Christians are now being systematically targeted for genocide in Syria according to Vatican and other sources with contacts on the ground among the besieged Christian community.

    According to reports by the Vatican’s Fides News Agency collected by the Centre for the Study of Interventionism, the US-backed Free Syrian Army rebels and ever more radical spin-off factions are sacking Christian churches, shooting Christians dead in the street, broadcasting ultimatums that all Christians must be cleansed from the rebel-held villages, and even shooting priests.

    It is now time that the genocide against the Pontic Greeks, Assyrians and Armenians is being recognized, that the Israeli occupation, settlements and violence against the Palestinians stop, and that the various minorities in the area start to live their lifes in peace – without violence and threats from majority populations, or from the West, and then specificially from the US.

    War in the Fertile Crescent

    Everyone is free to use the text on this blog as they want. There is no copyright etc. This because knowledge is more important than rules and regulations.

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Katpatuka – Cappadocia

Introduction to Cappadocia

Cappadocia is a magical and breathtaking region with its unique mix of natural geography, Anatolian history and vibrant traditional Turkish culture. The rocky fairy chimneys attest to ancient volcanic eruptions and the ravages of sun, frost, wind, and rain. Cappadocia’s history embodies the consequences of its unique Central Anatolian situation which offered both protection from and vulnerability to the various armies that swept across the region. More importantly, Cappadocia’s living culture encapsulates a tolerance of religious and cultural differences which is deeply rooted in a past where Muslims, Christians and Jews lived alongside each other in harmony for centuries.

Cappadocia Culture

Cappadocia is famous for its traditional way of life. Local women in the street still wear their traditional baggy trousers and decorative headscarves. In the countryside you may notice fields being ploughed by horses or even donkeys, and mules, donkeys and carts take the produce home. In local villages, the women bake bread in the communal oven at least once a week.

Cappadocia Rock Formations

The lunar landscape of Cappadocia is dotted with fairy chimneys, rock castles, underground cities, and cave dwellings – some of which are still lived in today. You too can stay in a cave, as many of the hotels are traditional dwellings that have been luxuriously restored.

Cappadocia History

Cappadocia has been inhabited since prehistoric times. No one knows when the underground cities were dug out – some say it was the Hittites who began the process. In more recent times, the valleys became home to Orthodox Christian monasteries, and their beautifully decorated churches are one of the regions main attractions.

Cappadocia Flora and Fauna

Wild flowers and plants are abundant, and the small fields of the local people are full of fruit trees, nut trees, and vines. Some local people collect the herbal plants to make their own medicinal teas. Birds, butterflies, gofer-type creatures, and foxes are common everywhere. The most common large bird in Cappadocia is the long-legged buzzard, whose long legs allow it to swoop and catch prey from the ground without landing.

Traditional Turkish Cuisine

There are many local restaurants with wonderful varieties of traditional Turkish cuisine. Look out for the local home-made ravioli called ‘manti’ served with yoghurt and home-made tomato sauce. You just have to try Turkish pizza, called ‘pide’, which is made from a long piece of very thin bread. Sweets include rice pudding served cold, often sprinkled with cinnamon, and asure (a-shore-ray), the oldest dessert in the world invented by Noah when his Ark came to land – it contains dried fruit, nuts, cereals and pulses.


Fottur i Cappadocia

Cappadocia Online

The Cappadocia Guide





















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