Cradle of Civilization

A Blog about the Birth of Our Civilisation and Development

  • Sjur C Papazian

  • FB: Sjur Papazian

  • Recent Posts

  • Categories

  • Armenian Eternal Symbol

  • Forget-me-not

  • The Fertile Crescent

    The Fertile Crescent is a term for an old fertile area north, east and west of the Arabian Desert in Southwest Asia. The Mesopotamian valley and the Nile valley fall under this term even though the mountain zone around Mesopotamia is the natural zone for the transition in a historical sense.

    As a result of a number of unique geographical factors the Fertile Crescent have an impressive history of early human agricultural activity and culture. Besides the numerous archaeological sites with remains of skeletons and cultural relics the area is known primarily for its excavation sites linked to agricultural origins and development of the Neolithic era.

    It was here, in the forested mountain slopes of the periphery of this area, that agriculture originated in an ecologically restricted environment. The western zone and areas around the upper Euphrates gave growth to the first known Neolithic farming communities with small, round houses , also referred to as Pre Pottery Neolithic A (PPNA) cultures, which dates to just after 10,000 BC and include areas such as Jericho, the world’s oldest city.

    During the subsequent PPNB from 9000 BC these communities developed into larger villages with farming and animal husbandry as the main source of livelihood, with settlement in the two-story, rectangular house. Man now entered in symbiosis with grain and livestock species, with no opportunity to return to hunter – gatherer societies.

    The area west and north of the plains of the Euphrates and Tigris also saw the emergence of early complex societies in the much later Bronze Age (about 4000 BC). There is evidence of written culture and early state formation in this northern steppe area, although the written formation of the states relatively quickly shifted its center of gravity into the Mesopotamian valley and developed there. The area is therefore in very many writers been named “The Cradle of Civilization.”

    The area has experienced a series of upheavals and new formation of states. When Turkey was formed in the aftermath of the genocide against the Pontic Greeks, Armenians and Assyrians perpetrated by the Young Turks during the First World War it is estimated that two-thirds to three-quarters of all Armenians and Assyrians in the region died, and the Pontic Greeks was pushed to Greece.

    Israel was created out of the Ottoman Empire and the conquering of the Palestinian terretories. The existence of large Arab nation states from the Maghreb to the Levant has since represented a potential threat to Israel which should be neutralised when opportunities arise.

    This line of thinking was at the heart of David Ben Gurion’s policies in the 1950s which sought to exacerbate tensions between Christians and Muslims in the Lebanon for the fruits of acquiring regional influence by the dismembering the country and the possible acquisition of additional territory.

    The Christians are now being systematically targeted for genocide in Syria according to Vatican and other sources with contacts on the ground among the besieged Christian community.

    According to reports by the Vatican’s Fides News Agency collected by the Centre for the Study of Interventionism, the US-backed Free Syrian Army rebels and ever more radical spin-off factions are sacking Christian churches, shooting Christians dead in the street, broadcasting ultimatums that all Christians must be cleansed from the rebel-held villages, and even shooting priests.

    It is now time that the genocide against the Pontic Greeks, Assyrians and Armenians is being recognized, that the Israeli occupation, settlements and violence against the Palestinians stop, and that the various minorities in the area start to live their lifes in peace – without violence and threats from majority populations, or from the West, and then specificially from the US.

    War in the Fertile Crescent
    https://aratta.wordpress.com/2013/11/13/war-in-the-fertile-crescent

    Everyone is free to use the text on this blog as they want. There is no copyright etc. This because knowledge is more important than rules and regulations.

  • Archives

India 2

https://i0.wp.com/upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/7c/Asia_001ad.jpg

Asia i år 0

Klassisk India

Classical India

Middle kingdoms of India

Kingdom of Gauda 590–626

Pala Empire 750–1174

Sena Empire CE 1070–CE 1230

Nordvest

The Northwest

The Indo-Scythian Sakas

The Indo-Greeks

The Yavanas

The Indo-Parthians

The Pahlavas

The Western Satraps

The Kushans

The Indo-Sassanid Kushanshahs

The Hephthalite Hunas

The Rais

The Gandharan Kambojas

The Shahis

Ganges-slettene og Deccan

The Gangetic Plains and Deccan

The Satavahanas

The Mahameghavahana dynasty

The Guptas

The Vakatakas

The Harsha Vardhana

The Gurjars

The Vishnukundinas

The Maitrakas

The Gurjara Pratiharas

The Rajputs

– The Chauhans

– The Kachwaha

– The Paramaras

– The Solankis

– The Tanwars (Tomara)

The Palas

The Candras

The Eastern Gangas

The Senas

The Varmans

Nordøst

The Northeast

The Varman dynasty of Kamarupa

The Mlechchha dynasty of Kamarupa

The Pala dynasty of Kamarupa

The Twipras

Deccan platået og i sør

The Deccan plateau and South

The Sangam Era Kingdoms

The Cheras

The Kalabhras

The Kadambas

The Western Gangas

The Badami Chalukyas

The Pallavas

The Eastern Chalukyas

The Pandyas

The Rashtrakutas

The Western Chalukyas

The Yadavas

The Kakatiyas

The Kalachuris

The Hoysalas

The Cholas

https://i2.wp.com/upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a5/Map_of_the_Periplus_of_the_Erythraean_Sea.jpg

File:Indo-Sassanid.jpg

Indo-sassanide handelsruter (230-410)

https://i2.wp.com/upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/18/Kharavela-Kingdom.GIF

Mahameghavahana dynastiet av Kalinga (250s f.vt. – 400-tallet) under Khārabēḷa

Kharavelas imperium

File:Indo-Sassanid.jpg

Det indo-sassanide imperium (230-410)

File:Vakataka empire.jpg

Vakataka imperiet 250-500

File:Western-ganga-empire-map.svg

Vestlig Ganga dynasti 350–1000

File:Indian Kadamba Empire map.svg

Kadambas av Banavasi 345–525

File:Gupta.png

Gupta 320 – 600-tallet

https://i2.wp.com/upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/b/b8/Gupta_Empire_320_-_600_ad.PNG

https://i2.wp.com/upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/92/Gupta_Empire%2C_India.jpg

Gupta imperiets ekspansjon

https://i0.wp.com/upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/8c/Borobudur-Nothwest-view.jpg

Borobudur på Java, Indonesia. Arkitekturen vitner om innflytelse fra Gupta arkitekturen i India

https://i0.wp.com/upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/80/Asia_400ad.jpg

Asia i år 400

https://i1.wp.com/upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/87/Asia_500ad.jpg

Asia i år 500

https://i2.wp.com/www.worldhistorymaps.info/images/Hephthalites_500ad.jpg

File:Persia 600ad.jpg

File:Harshabysumchung.jpg

Harsha imperiet 606–647

https://i0.wp.com/upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/fa/Kalabhras_territories.png

Kalabhras kontrollerte store deler av det sørlige India på 500-600-tallet

File:Badami-chalukya-empire-map.svg

Badami Chalukya imperiet 636 – 740

https://i2.wp.com/upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/18/Pala_Empire_%28Dharmapala%29.gif

File:Devapala.svg

Pala imperiet i sin største utstrekning under Devapala

File:Indian Rashtrakuta Empire map.svg

Rashtrakuta imperiet 800 – 915

File:Indian Kanauj triangle map.svg

Kannauj trianglet 750-900

File:Map of expansion of Caliphate.svg

Kalifatet

File:Samanid dynasty (819–999).GIF

Samanideriket

File:Timurid Dynasty 821 - 873 (AH).png

Timurideriket

File:Kalacuri dynasty.jpg

Det sørlige Kalachuris  (1130–1184)

det nordlige Kalachuris (800-tallet – 1200–1300-tallet)

File:Gurjara Pratihara Empire, India.jpg

Gurjara Pratihara imperiet (600 – 1036)

Kachari Kingdom (Dimasa) 1300-tallet – 1828

kachari kingdom in Dimapur

Kachari kongedømmet (Dimasa) 1300-tallet – 1828

Kachari kongedømmet (Dimasa)

File:Paramara dynasty.jpg

Paramara dynastiet 800–1327

File:Hindu Shahi dynasty.jpg

Kabul Shahi 500–tallet – 1010/1026

File:Western-chalukya-empire-map.svg

Vestlig Chalukya imperium 973–1189

File:Hoysala Empire extent.svg

Hoysala imperiet 1026–1343

File:South India in AD 1100.jpg

Sør India i år 1100

File:Kulothunga territories cl.png

Chola territorier under Kulothunga Chola I i 1120

Chola imperiet under Rajendra Chola i år 1030

File:Hoysala Empire extent.svg

Hoysala imperiet 1026–1343

File:IndiaAssam.png

Sutiya kongedømmet 1187-1673

https://i2.wp.com/upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/16/Asia_1200ad.jpg

Asia i år 1200

File:Pandya territories.png

Pandya territorium 1250

File:Assam Cachar locator map.svg

Kachari kongedømmet 1300-tallet – 1828

Senmiddelalderen (1206 – 1596)

https://i0.wp.com/upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/30/Delhi_History_Map.png

Delhi sultanatet under ulike dynastier

Late medieval age (1206–1596 AD) (Bengal)

Deva Dynasty (c.12th-13th century) (Bengal)

Ikhtiyar Uddin Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khilji (Bengal)

Raja Ganesha (Bengal)

Ilyas Shahi dynasty (14th century to the 15th century) (Bengal)

Sultanate of Bengal (14th through the 16th centuries) (Bengal)

Pratap Aditya (Bengal)

Raja Sitaram Ray (Bengal)

Nawabs of Bengal and Murshidabad (Bengal)

Baro-Bhuyan (Bengal)

Hoysala Empire

Kakatiya Kingdom

Trigarta Kingdom

Delhi Sultanate

Mughal Empire

Ahom Kingdom

Reddy Kingdom

Vijayanagara Empire

Gajapati Kingdom

Deccan Sultanates

Sikh Empire

Tidlig moderne periode (1526–1858)

Early modern period (1526–1858 AD)

Lodhi Dynasty

Delhi Sultanate

Vijayanagara Empire

Deccan sultanates

Great Mughal Empire

https://i0.wp.com/upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/29/Delhi_Sultanate_map.png

Delhi sultanatet 1206–1526

File:Sultanat von Delhi Tughluq-Dynastie.png

Delhi sultanatet 1206–1526

https://i0.wp.com/upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/9c/Baburs_Invasion_1526.gif

Delhi sultanatet 1206–1526

File:Vijayanagara-empire-map.svg

Vijayanagara imperiet 1336–1646

File:South India in AD 1400.jpg

File:Reddy kingdom.svg

Reddy kongedømmet på 1400-tallet

File:Deccan sultanates from Schwartzberg Atlas.jpg

Deccan sultanatene 1527–1686

File:India in 1700 Joppen.jpg

På sin høyde i 1690 strakk Mughal imperiet seg fra Kabul til det sentrale Sør India

Maratha konføderasjonen var en hovedmakt på det indiske subkontinent 1674–1820

File:Sikh Empire.JPG

Sikh imperiet 1799–1849

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s

 
%d bloggers like this: