Cradle of Civilization

A Blog about the Birth of Our Civilisation and Development

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  • The Fertile Crescent

    The Fertile Crescent is a term for an old fertile area north, east and west of the Arabian Desert in Southwest Asia. The Mesopotamian valley and the Nile valley fall under this term even though the mountain zone around Mesopotamia is the natural zone for the transition in a historical sense.

    As a result of a number of unique geographical factors the Fertile Crescent have an impressive history of early human agricultural activity and culture. Besides the numerous archaeological sites with remains of skeletons and cultural relics the area is known primarily for its excavation sites linked to agricultural origins and development of the Neolithic era.

    It was here, in the forested mountain slopes of the periphery of this area, that agriculture originated in an ecologically restricted environment. The western zone and areas around the upper Euphrates gave growth to the first known Neolithic farming communities with small, round houses , also referred to as Pre Pottery Neolithic A (PPNA) cultures, which dates to just after 10,000 BC and include areas such as Jericho, the world’s oldest city.

    During the subsequent PPNB from 9000 BC these communities developed into larger villages with farming and animal husbandry as the main source of livelihood, with settlement in the two-story, rectangular house. Man now entered in symbiosis with grain and livestock species, with no opportunity to return to hunter – gatherer societies.

    The area west and north of the plains of the Euphrates and Tigris also saw the emergence of early complex societies in the much later Bronze Age (about 4000 BC). There is evidence of written culture and early state formation in this northern steppe area, although the written formation of the states relatively quickly shifted its center of gravity into the Mesopotamian valley and developed there. The area is therefore in very many writers been named “The Cradle of Civilization.”

    The area has experienced a series of upheavals and new formation of states. When Turkey was formed in the aftermath of the genocide against the Pontic Greeks, Armenians and Assyrians perpetrated by the Young Turks during the First World War it is estimated that two-thirds to three-quarters of all Armenians and Assyrians in the region died, and the Pontic Greeks was pushed to Greece.

    Israel was created out of the Ottoman Empire and the conquering of the Palestinian terretories. The existence of large Arab nation states from the Maghreb to the Levant has since represented a potential threat to Israel which should be neutralised when opportunities arise.

    This line of thinking was at the heart of David Ben Gurion’s policies in the 1950s which sought to exacerbate tensions between Christians and Muslims in the Lebanon for the fruits of acquiring regional influence by the dismembering the country and the possible acquisition of additional territory.

    The Christians are now being systematically targeted for genocide in Syria according to Vatican and other sources with contacts on the ground among the besieged Christian community.

    According to reports by the Vatican’s Fides News Agency collected by the Centre for the Study of Interventionism, the US-backed Free Syrian Army rebels and ever more radical spin-off factions are sacking Christian churches, shooting Christians dead in the street, broadcasting ultimatums that all Christians must be cleansed from the rebel-held villages, and even shooting priests.

    It is now time that the genocide against the Pontic Greeks, Assyrians and Armenians is being recognized, that the Israeli occupation, settlements and violence against the Palestinians stop, and that the various minorities in the area start to live their lifes in peace – without violence and threats from majority populations, or from the West, and then specificially from the US.

    War in the Fertile Crescent

    Everyone is free to use the text on this blog as they want. There is no copyright etc. This because knowledge is more important than rules and regulations.

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Opprinnelsen til tandoor

Posted by Sjur Cappelen Papazian on January 15, 2020

Image result for armenian tandoor

Image result for armenian tandoor

Image result for armenian tandoor

What is a Tandoor?

Leyla-Tepe-kulturen i det sørlige Kaukasus var en kobberalderkultur i perioden 4350-4000 f.vt. Det var en lokal utvikling nært forbundet med kulturene i det armenske høylandet, samt med resten av Mesopotamia. Nyere forskning indikerer forbindelsene til tradisjonene før Uruk, slik som den nordlige Ubaid perioden (5300 and 4300 f.vt.).

Soyuqbulaq (også Soyuq Bulaq) er en landsby i Agstafa, Aserbajdsjan. Her har man funnet ni kurganer som dateres til begynnelsen av 4000-tallet f.vt., noe som gjør den til den eldste kurgan-kirkegården i Transkaukasia.

Lignende kurganere har blitt funnet andre steder i det sørlige Kaukasus, som tilhører den samme tradisjonen som Soyuq Bulaq. Stedene inkluderer en keramikk som tilhører den nord-mesopotamiske tradisjonen.

Bosetningen er av en typisk sørvest-asiatisk variant og er nært forbundet med de påfølgende sivilisasjonene i det armenske høylandet, noe som blant annet vises gjennom at boligene er pakket tett sammen og laget av gjørmemurstein med røykuttak, som ligner den armenske tandoor, også kjent som tannour, som er en sylindrisk leire- eller metalovn brukt til matlagning og baking i Sør-, Sentral- og Sørvest Asia, så vel som i det sørlige Kaukasus.

Armenere sies å ha skapt de underjordiske tonier. I gamle tider ble toniren tilbedt av armenerne som et symbol på solen i bakken. Armenere laget tonier i likhet med den solnedgangen som gikk i bakken. Den underjordiske toniren, laget av leire, er et av de første redskapene i armensk matlagning, som en ovn og som en varmekilde.

Det engelske ordet tandoor kommer fra hindi / urdu tandūr, som selv kommer fra persisk tanūr, som betyr leireovn. Det persiske ordet kommer fra det akkadiske ordet tinūru, som består av delene tinn («gjørme») og nuro / nura («ild») og nevnes så tidlig som i legenden om Gilgamesh, jf også det avestanske tanûra og mellompersiske tanûr. På sanskrit ble tandooren referert til som kandu.

Ord relatert til tandoor brukes på forskjellige språk, for eksempel de persiske ordene tandūr og tannūr, det armenske t’onir, georgiske tone, arabiske tannūr, hebraiske tanúr, som blant annet brukes i 3. Mosebok 2:4, tyrkiske tandır, usbekisk tandir, aserbajdsjanske təndir og kurdiske tenûr.




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