Cradle of Civilization

A Blog about the Birth of Our Civilisation and Development

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  • The Fertile Crescent

    The Fertile Crescent is a term for an old fertile area north, east and west of the Arabian Desert in Southwest Asia. The Mesopotamian valley and the Nile valley fall under this term even though the mountain zone around Mesopotamia is the natural zone for the transition in a historical sense.

    As a result of a number of unique geographical factors the Fertile Crescent have an impressive history of early human agricultural activity and culture. Besides the numerous archaeological sites with remains of skeletons and cultural relics the area is known primarily for its excavation sites linked to agricultural origins and development of the Neolithic era.

    It was here, in the forested mountain slopes of the periphery of this area, that agriculture originated in an ecologically restricted environment. The western zone and areas around the upper Euphrates gave growth to the first known Neolithic farming communities with small, round houses , also referred to as Pre Pottery Neolithic A (PPNA) cultures, which dates to just after 10,000 BC and include areas such as Jericho, the world’s oldest city.

    During the subsequent PPNB from 9000 BC these communities developed into larger villages with farming and animal husbandry as the main source of livelihood, with settlement in the two-story, rectangular house. Man now entered in symbiosis with grain and livestock species, with no opportunity to return to hunter – gatherer societies.

    The area west and north of the plains of the Euphrates and Tigris also saw the emergence of early complex societies in the much later Bronze Age (about 4000 BC). There is evidence of written culture and early state formation in this northern steppe area, although the written formation of the states relatively quickly shifted its center of gravity into the Mesopotamian valley and developed there. The area is therefore in very many writers been named “The Cradle of Civilization.”

    The area has experienced a series of upheavals and new formation of states. When Turkey was formed in the aftermath of the genocide against the Pontic Greeks, Armenians and Assyrians perpetrated by the Young Turks during the First World War it is estimated that two-thirds to three-quarters of all Armenians and Assyrians in the region died, and the Pontic Greeks was pushed to Greece.

    Israel was created out of the Ottoman Empire and the conquering of the Palestinian terretories. The existence of large Arab nation states from the Maghreb to the Levant has since represented a potential threat to Israel which should be neutralised when opportunities arise.

    This line of thinking was at the heart of David Ben Gurion’s policies in the 1950s which sought to exacerbate tensions between Christians and Muslims in the Lebanon for the fruits of acquiring regional influence by the dismembering the country and the possible acquisition of additional territory.

    The Christians are now being systematically targeted for genocide in Syria according to Vatican and other sources with contacts on the ground among the besieged Christian community.

    According to reports by the Vatican’s Fides News Agency collected by the Centre for the Study of Interventionism, the US-backed Free Syrian Army rebels and ever more radical spin-off factions are sacking Christian churches, shooting Christians dead in the street, broadcasting ultimatums that all Christians must be cleansed from the rebel-held villages, and even shooting priests.

    It is now time that the genocide against the Pontic Greeks, Assyrians and Armenians is being recognized, that the Israeli occupation, settlements and violence against the Palestinians stop, and that the various minorities in the area start to live their lifes in peace – without violence and threats from majority populations, or from the West, and then specificially from the US.

    War in the Fertile Crescent
    https://aratta.wordpress.com/2013/11/13/war-in-the-fertile-crescent

    Everyone is free to use the text on this blog as they want. There is no copyright etc. This because knowledge is more important than rules and regulations.

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Grandmothers Were Crucial for Human Evolution

Posted by Sjur Cappelen Papazian on December 12, 2019

Anthropologists argue that the presence of grandmothers has been crucial in driving human evolution.

New Evidence That Grandmothers Were Crucial for Human Evolution

Jungian Archetypes

For years, anthropologists and evolutionary biologists have struggled to explain the existence of menopause, a life stage that humans do not share with our primate relatives. Why would it be beneficial for females to stop being able to have children with decades still left to live? Now, a computer simulation supports the idea that grandmothers helped our species evolve social skills and longer lives.

In Carl Jung’s theory of analytical psychology, the Wise Old Woman and the Wise Old Man are archetypes of the Collective Unconscious. ‘The “wise old woman”…[or] helpful “old woman” is a well-known symbol in myths and fairy tales for the wisdom of the eternal female nature’. The ‘Wise Old Man, or some other very powerful aspect of eternal masculinity’ is her male counterpart.

In Jung’s thought, the individuation process was marked by a sequence of archetypes, each acquiring predominance at successive stages, and so reflecting what he termed an ascending psychic scale or ‘hierarchy of the unconscious’.

Thus, starting with the intermediate position of ‘anima or animus…just as the latter have a higher position in the hierarchy than the shadow, so wholeness lays claim to a position and a value superior’ still. The Wise Old Woman and Man, as what he termed “Mana” personalities or “supraordinate” personalities, stood for that wholeness of the self: ‘the mother (“Primordial Mother” and “Earth Mother”) as a supraordinary personality…as the “self”‘.

As von Franz put it, ‘If an individual has wrestled seriously and long enough with the anima (or animus) problem, so that he, or she, is no longer partially identified with it, the unconscious again changes its dominant character and appears in a new symbolic form representing the Self, the innermost nucleus of the personality.

In the dreams of a woman this centre is usually personified as a superior female figure – a priestess, sorceress, earth mother, or goddess of nature or love. In the case of a man, it manifests itself as a masculine initiator and guardian (an Indian guru), a wise old man, a spirit of nature and so forth’.

The masculine initiator was described by Jung as ‘a figure of the same sex corresponding to the father-imago…the mana-personality [a]s a dominant of the collective unconscious, the recognized archetype of the mighty man in the form of hero, chief, magician, medicine-man, saint, the ruler of men and spirits’. Similarly, ‘the wise Old Woman figure represented by Hecate or the Crone …the Great Mother’ stood for an aspect of the mother-imago.

The archetypes of the collective unconscious can thus be seen as inner representations of the same-sex parent – as an ‘imago built up from parental influences plus the specific reactions of the child’. Consequently, for the Jungian, ‘the making conscious of those contents which constitute the archetype of the mana personality signifies therefore “for the man the second and true liberation from the father, for the woman that from the mother, and therewith the first perception of their own unique individuality”‘.

In Jung’s view, ‘all archetypes spontaneously develop favourable and unfavourable, light and dark, good and bad effects’. Thus ‘the “good Wise Man” must here be contrasted with a correspondingly dark, chthonic figure’, and in the same way, the priestess or sibyl has her counterpart in the figure of ‘the witch…called by Jung the “terrible mother”‘. Taken together, male and female, ‘The hunter or old magician and the witch correspond to the negative parental images in the magic world of the unconscious’.

But judgement of such collective archetypes must not be hasty. ‘Just as all archetypes have a positive, favourable, bright side that points upwards, so also they have one that points downwards, partly negative and unfavourable, partly chthonic’ – so that (for example) ‘the sky-woman is the positive, the bear the negative aspect of the “supraordinate personality”, which extends the conscious human being upwards into the celestial and downwards into the animal regions’.

Yet both aspects, celestial and chthonic, were (at least potentially) of equal value for Jung, as he sought for what he termed a “coniunctio oppositorum”, a union of opposites. ‘One does not become enlightened by imagining figures of light’, he argued, ‘but by making the darkness conscious’. Similarly with respect to the goal of the individuation process itself, ‘as a totality, the self is a coincidentia oppositorum; it is therefore bright and dark and yet neither’. At this stage of development one possesses discernment or some other virtue.

Coming to terms with the Mana figures of the collective unconscious – with the parental imagos – thus meant overcoming a psychic splitting, so as to make possible an acceptance of ‘the Twisted side of the Great Mother’; an acceptance of the way ‘the father contains both Kings at once…the Twisted King and the Whole King’.

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