Cradle of Civilization

A Blog about the Birth of Our Civilisation and Development

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  • The Fertile Crescent

    The Fertile Crescent is a term for an old fertile area north, east and west of the Arabian Desert in Southwest Asia. The Mesopotamian valley and the Nile valley fall under this term even though the mountain zone around Mesopotamia is the natural zone for the transition in a historical sense.

    As a result of a number of unique geographical factors the Fertile Crescent have an impressive history of early human agricultural activity and culture. Besides the numerous archaeological sites with remains of skeletons and cultural relics the area is known primarily for its excavation sites linked to agricultural origins and development of the Neolithic era.

    It was here, in the forested mountain slopes of the periphery of this area, that agriculture originated in an ecologically restricted environment. The western zone and areas around the upper Euphrates gave growth to the first known Neolithic farming communities with small, round houses , also referred to as Pre Pottery Neolithic A (PPNA) cultures, which dates to just after 10,000 BC and include areas such as Jericho, the world’s oldest city.

    During the subsequent PPNB from 9000 BC these communities developed into larger villages with farming and animal husbandry as the main source of livelihood, with settlement in the two-story, rectangular house. Man now entered in symbiosis with grain and livestock species, with no opportunity to return to hunter – gatherer societies.

    The area west and north of the plains of the Euphrates and Tigris also saw the emergence of early complex societies in the much later Bronze Age (about 4000 BC). There is evidence of written culture and early state formation in this northern steppe area, although the written formation of the states relatively quickly shifted its center of gravity into the Mesopotamian valley and developed there. The area is therefore in very many writers been named “The Cradle of Civilization.”

    The area has experienced a series of upheavals and new formation of states. When Turkey was formed in the aftermath of the genocide against the Pontic Greeks, Armenians and Assyrians perpetrated by the Young Turks during the First World War it is estimated that two-thirds to three-quarters of all Armenians and Assyrians in the region died, and the Pontic Greeks was pushed to Greece.

    Israel was created out of the Ottoman Empire and the conquering of the Palestinian terretories. The existence of large Arab nation states from the Maghreb to the Levant has since represented a potential threat to Israel which should be neutralised when opportunities arise.

    This line of thinking was at the heart of David Ben Gurion’s policies in the 1950s which sought to exacerbate tensions between Christians and Muslims in the Lebanon for the fruits of acquiring regional influence by the dismembering the country and the possible acquisition of additional territory.

    The Christians are now being systematically targeted for genocide in Syria according to Vatican and other sources with contacts on the ground among the besieged Christian community.

    According to reports by the Vatican’s Fides News Agency collected by the Centre for the Study of Interventionism, the US-backed Free Syrian Army rebels and ever more radical spin-off factions are sacking Christian churches, shooting Christians dead in the street, broadcasting ultimatums that all Christians must be cleansed from the rebel-held villages, and even shooting priests.

    It is now time that the genocide against the Pontic Greeks, Assyrians and Armenians is being recognized, that the Israeli occupation, settlements and violence against the Palestinians stop, and that the various minorities in the area start to live their lifes in peace – without violence and threats from majority populations, or from the West, and then specificially from the US.

    War in the Fertile Crescent
    https://aratta.wordpress.com/2013/11/13/war-in-the-fertile-crescent

    Everyone is free to use the text on this blog as they want. There is no copyright etc. This because knowledge is more important than rules and regulations.

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The human migration – haplogroups

Posted by Sjur Cappelen Papazian on July 15, 2019

Haplogroup CF, also known as CF-P143 and CT(xDE), is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. This paternal lineage is defined by the SNP P143. The clade’s existence and distribution are inferred from the fact that haplogroups descended from CF include most human male lineages in Eurasia, Oceania and The Americas.

Haplogroup CF is an immediate descendant of the Haplogroup CT (CT-M168), and is the sibling of Haplogroup DE (DE-YAP). Men who carry the CT clade have Y chromosomes with the SNP mutation M168, along with P9.1 and M294. These mutations are present in all modern human male lineages except A and B-M60, which are both found almost exclusively in Africa.

The most recent common male line ancestor (TMRCA) of all CT men today probably predated the recent African origin of modern humans, a migration in which some of his descendants participated. He is therefore thought to have lived in Africa before this proposed migration. In keeping with the concept of “Y-chromosomal Adam” given to the patrilineal ancestor of all living humans, CT-M168 has therefore also been referred to in popularized accounts as being the lineage of “Eurasian Adam” or “Out of Africa Adam”.

No male in paragroup CT* has ever been discovered in modern populations. This means that all males carrying this haplogroup are also defined as being in one of the several major branch clades. All known surviving descendant lineages of CT are in one of two major subclades, CF and DE. In turn, DE is divided into an Asia-distributed haplogroup D-M174 and a now predominantly Africa-distributed haplogroup E-M96, while CF is divided into an East Asian, American, and Oceanian haplogroup C-M130 and haplogroup F-M89, which dominates most non-African populations.

Haplogroup CT had been found in various prehistoric human fossils that were analysed for ancient DNA, including specimens associated with the Pre-Pottery Neolithic C (1/1; 100%), Neolithic Ganj Dareh Iran (1/2 50%), Natufian (2/5; 40%), Pre-Pottery Neolithic B (2/7; ~29%), Alföld Linear Pottery (1/1 at two ALP archaeological sites; 100%), Linearbandkeramik (1/2 at Karsdorf LBK archaeological site; 50%) cultures, and some Upper Paleolithic Europeans (Cioclovina1, Kostenki12, Vestonice13). But whether these, or all of them, belong to paragroup CT* or to its branches, is as yet undetermined.

DE is unique because it is distributed in several geographically distinct clusters. An immediate subclade, haplogroup D, is normally found only in eastern Asia, parts of Central Asia and the Andaman Islands, and the other immediate subclade, haplogroup E, is common in Africa, Europe and the Middle East. The age of haplogroup DE is generally estimated between 65,000 and 71,000 years.

Haplogroup CF is the immediate ancestor of both Haplogroup C and Haplogroup F. Haplogroup C is found in ancient populations on every continent except Africa and is the predominant Y-DNA haplogroup among males belonging to many peoples indigenous to East Asia, Central Asia, Siberia, North America and Oceania. The haplogroup is also found at moderate frequencies among certain indigenous populations of Southeast Asia.

Haplogroup F, also known as F-M89, is a very common Y-chromosome haplogroup. The clade and its subclades constitute over 90% of paternal lineages outside of Africa. It is primarily found throughout South Asia, Southeast Asia and parts of East Asia.

It is estimated that the SNP M89 appeared 38,700–55,700 years ago, most likely in South Asia. This theory has all but superseded previous research, which suggested that F-M89 first appeared in the Arabian Peninsula, Levant or North Africa, about 43,800–56,800 years ago, and may, therefore, have represented a “second wave” of expansion out of Africa.

The location of this lineage’s first expansion and rise to prevalence appears to have been in the Indian Subcontinent, or somewhere close to it, and most of the descendant subclades and haplogroups appear to have radiated outward from South Asia and/or neighbouring parts of the Middle East and South East Asia.

Some lineages derived from Haplogroup F-M89 appear to have back-migrated into Africa from Southwest Asia, during prehistory. Subclades of F-M89 associated with this hypothetical “Back to Africa” migration include J, R1b, and T.

The vast majority of individual males with F-M89 fall into its direct descendant Haplogroup GHIJK (F1329/M3658/PF2622/YSC0001299). In addition to GHIJK, haplogroup F has three other immediate descendant subclades: F1 (P91/P104), F2 (M427/M428), and F3 (M481). These three, with F* (M89*), constitute the paragroup F(xGHIJK).

GHIJK is the major clade of Haplogroup F (F-M89). This macrohaplogroup and its subclades contain the vast majority of the world’s existing male population. It branches subsequently into two direct descendants: Haplogroup G (M201/PF2957) and Haplogroup HIJK (F929/M578/PF3494/S6397). The other haplotypes of Haplogroup F are F1, F2, and F3.

Like its parent macrohaplogroup GHIJK, Haplogroup HIJK and its subclades comprise the vast majority of the world’s male population. Subclades of GHIJK, under the HIJK lineage, include: H (L901/M2939) and IJK (F-L15). The downstream descendants of Haplogroup IJK include the major haplogroups I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S and T.

IJK in turn splits into IJ (F-L15) and K (M9). The descendants of Haplogroup IJ are haplogroups I and J, while Haplogroup K (which includes most of the world’s male population) is, ultimately, the ancestor of major haplogroups M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, L, and T.

Haplogroup IJ derived populations account for a significant proportion of the pre-modern populations of Europe (especially Scandinavia and the Balkans), Anatolia, the Middle East (especially Arabia, The Caucasus, Levant and Mesopotamia) and coastal North Africa. As a result of mass migrations during the modern era, they are now also significant in The Americas and Australasia.

Haplogroup K or K-M9 is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. A sublineage of haplogroup IJK, K-M9 and its descendant clades represent a geographically widespread and diverse haplogroup. The lineages have long been found among males on every continent.

Y-DNA haplogroup K-M9 is an old lineage that arose approximately 47,000-50,000 years ago, probably in South Asia or West Asia. Basal K* is exceptionally rare and under-researched; while it has been reported at very low frequencies on many continents it is not always clear if the examples concerned have been screened for subclades. Confirmed examples of K-M9* now appear to be most common amongst some populations in Island South East Asia and Melanesia.

The direct descendants of K-M9 are Haplogroup K2 (formerly KxLT; K-M526) and Haplogroup LT (L298 = P326). Primary descendants of haplogroup LT are L (M20), also known as K1a, and T (M184), also known as K1b. The descendants of haplogroup K2 include K2a (detected in paleolithic specimens Oase1 and Ust’-Ishim), the subclades of which include the major haplogroups N and O, and; K2b – the ancestor of haplogroups M, P, Q, R, S.

Haplogroup K2a (M2308, Z4842) is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. Its sole primary descendant is haplogroup K-M2313. A secondary subclade, Haplogroup NO, which is a primary subclade of K-M2313, includes a majority of males now living in all parts of East Asia, Northern Eurasia and South East Asia.

Basal K2a-M2308* has been found only in the remains of two Upper Paleolithic individuals, known as “Ust’-Ishim man and “Oase-1”, from Siberia and the Balkans respectively. K-M2313* has been documented in two living individuals, who have ethnic ties to South Asia and South East Asia respectively: a Telugu from India and an ethnic Malay from Singapore. In addition, K-Y28299, which appears to be a primary branch of K-M2313, has been found in three living individuals from India. NO-M214* has not been identified in living individuals or remains.

Haplogroup K2b (P331), also known as MPS, is a human y-chromosome haplogroup that is thought to be less than 3,000 years younger than K, and less than 10,000 years younger than F, meaning it probably is around 50,000 years old. The basal paragroup K2b* has not been identified among living males or ancient remains.

K2b1 (P397/P399) known previously as Haplogroup MS, and Haplogroup P (P-P295), also known as K2b2, are the only primary clades of K2b. The estimated dates for the branching of K, K2, K2b and P point to a rapid diversification within K2, into K2a and K2b , followed by K2b1 and P (also known as K2b2), that likely occurred in Southeast Asia. This was followed by the relatively rapid westward expansion of P1 – the immediate ancestor of both Haplogroups Q and R.

K2b1, its subclades and P*, are virtually restricted geographically to South East Asia and Oceania whereas, in a striking contrast, P1 (P-M45), also known as K2b2a, and its primary subclades Q and R that now make up the most frequent haplogroup in Europe, the Americas, and Central Asia and South Asia.

Defined by the SNPs M45 and PF5962, P1 is a primary branch (subclade) of P* (P-P295; K2b2). The only primary subclades of P1 are Haplogroup Q (Q-M242) and Haplogroup R (R-M207). These haplogroups now comprise most of the male lineages among Native Americans, Europeans, Central Asia and South Asia, among other parts of the world.

P1 (M45) likely originated in East Asia or Southeast Asia, even though basal P1* (P1xQ,R) is now most common among individuals in Eastern Siberia and Central Asia. Both P* and its precursor, K2b, reach their highest rates among members of the Aeta (or Agta) people of Luzon in the Philippines, and; Luzon is also the only location where P*, P1 and haplogroup P2 (P-B253; K2b2b), the only other primary subclade of P*, have been found together.

However, a 2018 study found basal P1* in two individuals dated to the Upper Paleolithic (~31,630 cal BP) from a Yana river archaeological site, a river in Sakha in Russia, located between the Lena to the west and the Indigirka to the east. It is possible that many cases of P-M45* in Central Asia, South Asia and/or West Asia are unresolved members of less-researched subclades of Haplogroups R2 and Q.

Haplogroup Q, or Q-M242, is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. It has one primary subclade, Haplogroup Q1 (L232/S432), which includes numerous subclades that have been sampled and identified in males among modern populations.

Q-M242 is believed to have arisen around the Altai Mountains area (or South Central Siberia), approximately 17,000 to 31,700 years ago. It is the predominant Y-DNA haplogroup among Native Americans and several peoples of Central Asia and Northern Siberia. It is also the predominant Y-DNA of the Akha tribe in northern Thailand and the Dayak people of Indonesia.

Haplogroup R, or R-M207, is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. It is both numerous and widespread amongst modern populations. Some descendant subclades have been found since pre-history in Europe, Central Asia and South Asia. Others have long been present, at lower levels, in parts of West Asia and Africa. Some authorities have also suggested, more controversially, that R-M207 has long been present among Native Americans in North America – a theory that has not yet been widely accepted.

Haplogroup R* Y-DNA (xR1,R2) was found in 24,000-year-old remains from Mal’ta, an archaeological culture of the Upper Paleolithic (c. 24,000 to 15,000 BP) on the upper Angara River in the area west of Lake Baikal in the Irkutsk Oblast, Siberia, Russian Federation. In 2013, R-M207 was found in one out of 132 males from the Kyrgyz people of East Kyrgyzstan.

R-M173, also known as R1, has been common throughout Europe and South Asia since pre-history. It has many branches. Males carrying R-M173 in modern populations appear to comprise two subclades: R1a and R1b, which are found mainly in populations native to Eurasia (except East and Southeast Asia).

Haplogroup R2 is defined by the presence of the marker M479. The paragroup for the R-M479 lineage is found predominantly in South Asia, although deep-rooted examples have also been found among Portuguese, Spanish, Tatar (Bashkortostan, Russia), and Ossetian (Caucasus) populations.

R2 has been concentrated geographically in South Asia and Central Asia since prehistory. It appears to reach its highest levels among the Burusho people in North Pakistan. However, it also appears to be present at low levels in the Caucasus, Iran, Anatolia and Europe.

Haplogroup R1a, or haplogroup R-M420, is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup which is distributed in a large region in Eurasia, extending from Scandinavia and Central Europe to southern Siberia and South Asia. While R1a originated ca. 22,000 to 25,000 years ago, its subclade M417 (R1a1a1) diversified ca. 5,800 years ago.

The distribution of M417-subclades R1a-Z282 (including R1a-Z280) in Central and Eastern Europe and R1a-Z93 in Asia suggests that R1a1a diversified within the Eurasian Steppes or the Middle East and Caucasus region. The place of origin of these subclades plays a role in the debate about the origins of Proto-Indo-Europeans.

Haplogroup R1b (R-M343 is a human Y-chromosome haplogroup. It is the most frequently occurring paternal lineage in Western Europe, as well as some parts of Russia (e.g. the Bashkir minority) and Central Africa (e.g. Chad and Cameroon). The clade is also present at lower frequencies throughout Eastern Europe, Western Asia, as well as parts of North Africa and Central Asia. R1b also reaches high frequencies in the Americas and Australasia, due largely to immigration from Western Europe.

R1b has two primary branches: R1b1a-L754 and R1b1b-PH155. R1b1a1a2-M269, which predominates in Western Europe, and R1b1a2-V88, which is common in Central Africa, are both subclades of R1b-L754. R1b1b-PH155 is so rare and widely dispersed that it is difficult to draw any conclusions about its origins. It has been found in Bahrain, Bhutan, Ladakh, Tajikistan, Turkey, and Western China. According to autosomal DNA studies the majority of modern R1b and R1a would have expanded from the Caspian Sea along with the Indo-European languages.

It is the second most common haplogroup in Indigenous peoples of the Americas following haplogroup Q-M242, especially in the Algonquian peoples of Canada and the United States. The reasons for high levels of R-M173 among Native Americans are a matter of controversy as some scholars claim that this is partly or wholly the result of colonial-era immigration from Europe, whereas; other authorities point to the greater similarity of many R-M173 subclades found in North America to those found in Siberia, suggesting prehistoric immigration from Asia and/or Beringia.

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