Cradle of Civilization

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Archive for June 19th, 2017

The covered bride in the underworld

Posted by Fredsvenn on June 19, 2017

Ishara – Ishtar – Sherida / Aya / Kallatu (the bride) – Kali – Hel  

From sun goddess to goddess of dawn – love goddess

she was known as the wife of the sun god Shamash

Ninhursag-Uttu – Frigg / Odin – Enki

Uttu in Sumerian mythology is the goddess of weaving and clothing. She is both the child of Enki and Ninkur, and she bears seven new child/trees from Enki, the eighth being the Ti (Tree of “Life”, associated with the “Rib”).

When Enki then ate Uttu’s children, Ninhursag cursed him with eight wounds and disappears. Uttu in Sumerian means “the woven” and she was illustrated as a spider in a web. She is a goddess in the pantheon.

Ninti is the Sumerian goddess of life. Ninti is also one of the eight goddesses of healing who was created by Ninhursag to heal Enki’s body. Her specific healing area was the rib (sumerian Ti means rib and to live).

Enki had eaten forbidden flowers and was then cursed by Ninhursaga, who was later persuaded by the other gods to heal him. Some scholars suggest that this served as the basis for the story of Eve created from Adam’s rib in the Book of Genesis.

The cosmogenic myth common in Sumer was that of the hieros gamos, a sacred marriage where divine principles in the form of dualistic opposites came together as male and female to give birth to the cosmos.

In the epic Enki and Ninhursag, Enki, as lord of Ab or fresh water (also the Sumerian word for semen), is living with his wife in the paradise of Dilmun. The subsequent tale, with similarities to the Biblical story of the forbidden fruit, repeats the story of how fresh water brings life to a barren land.

Enki, the Water-Lord then “caused to flow the ‘water of the heart” and having fertilised his consort Ninhursag, also known as Ki or Earth, after “Nine days being her nine months, the months of ‘womanhood’… like good butter, Nintu, the mother of the land, …like good butter, gave birth to Ninsar, (Lady Greenery)”. When Ninhursag left him, as Water-Lord he came upon Ninsar (Lady Greenery).

Not knowing her to be his daughter, and because she reminds him of his absent consort, Enki then seduces and has intercourse with her. Ninsar then gave birth to Ninkurra (Lady Fruitfulness or Lady Pasture), and leaves Enki alone again. A second time, Enki, in his loneliness finds and seduces Ninkurra, and from the union Ninkurra gave birth to Uttu (weaver or spider, the weaver of the web of life).

A third time Enki succumbs to temptation, and attempts seduction of Uttu. Upset about Enki’s reputation, Uttu consults Ninhursag, who, upset at the promiscuous wayward nature of her spouse, advises Uttu to avoid the riverbanks, the places likely to be affected by flooding, the home of Enki.

In another version of this myth Ninhursag takes Enki’s semen from Uttu’s womb and plants it in the earth where eight plants rapidly germinate. With his two-faced servant and steward Isimud, “Enki, in the swampland, in the swampland lies stretched out, ‘What is this (plant), what is this (plant).

His messenger Isimud, answers him; ‘My king, this is the tree-plant’, he says to him. He cuts it off for him and he (Enki) eats it”. And so, despite warnings, Enki consumes the other seven fruit.

Consuming his own semen, he falls pregnant (ill with swellings) in his jaw, his teeth, his mouth, his hip, his throat, his limbs, his side and his rib. The gods are at a loss to know what to do, chagrinned they “sit in the dust”.

As Enki lacks a womb with which to give birth, he seems to be dying with swellings. The fox then asks Enlil King of the Gods, “If I bring Ninhursag before thee, what shall be my reward?” Ninhursag’s sacred fox then fetches the goddess.

Ninhursag relents and takes Enki’s Ab (water, or semen) into her body, and gives birth to gods of healing of each part of the body. Abu for the Jaw, Nintul for the Hip, Ninsutu for the tooth, Ninkasi for the mouth, Dazimua for the side, Enshagag for the Limbs.

The last one, Ninti (Lady Rib), is also a pun on Lady Life, a title of Ninhursag herself. The story thus symbolically reflects the way in which life is brought forth through the addition of water to the land, and once it grows, water is required to bring plants to fruit. It also counsels balance and responsibility, nothing to excess.

Ninti, the title of Ninhursag, also means “the mother of all living”, and was a title given to the later Hurrian goddess Kheba. This is also the title given in the Bible to Eve, the Hebrew and Aramaic Ḥawwah (חוה), who was made from the rib of Adam, in a strange reflection of the Sumerian myth, in which Adam — not Enki — walks in the Garden of Paradise.

Nergal – Tyr / Ereshkigal – Hel

The veil and headscarf have political, sexual, religious, and social meanings that combine and overlap: the head covering can connote class affiliation, regional distinctions, or religious belief as well as signifying the status of femaleness.

The veil can be traced back all the way to early antiquity as both attribute of goddesses and a garment worn by ordinary mortal women. The earliest evidence comes from Mesopotamia and the Mediterranean region.

In ancient Greece as well, the veil was part of the attire worn by married women from the upper classes. Brides likewise wear a veil over their face as a sign of their modesty—a custom practiced by both the Jews and the Greeks and later adopted by the Romans.

In Hebrew the literal meaning of the word for bride (kallatu) is “the veiled one.” By lifting the bride’s veil the bridegroom symbolically exposes her pudenda, and by thus “knowing” her he symbolically performs the sexual act.

Aya (or Aja) in Akkadian mythology was a mother goddess, consort of the sun god Shamash. She developed from the Sumerian goddess Sherida, consort of Utu.

Sherida is one of the oldest Mesopotamian gods, attested in inscriptions from pre-Sargonic times, her name (as “Aya”) was a popular personal name during the Ur III period (21st-20th century BCE), making her among the oldest Semitic deities known in the region.

As the Sumerian pantheon formalized, Utu became the primary sun god, and Sherida was syncretized into a subordinate role as an aspect of the sun alongside other less powerful solar deities (c.f. Ninurta) and took on the role of Utu’s consort.

When the Semitic Akkadians moved into Mesopotamia, their pantheon became syncretized to the Sumerian. Inanna to Ishtar, Nanna to Sin, Utu to Shamash, etc.

The minor Mesopotamian sun goddess Aya became syncretized into Sherida during this process. The goddess Aya in this aspect appears to have had wide currency among Semitic peoples, as she is mentioned in god-lists in Ugarit and shows up in personal names in the Bible.

Aya is Akkadian for “dawn”, and by the Akkadian period she was firmly associated with the rising sun and with sexual love and youth. The Babylonians sometimes referred to her as kallatu (the bride), and as such she was known as the wife of Shamash. In fact, she was worshiped as part of a separate-but-attached cult in Shamash’s e-babbar temples in Larsa and Sippar.

By the Neo-Babylonian period at the latest (and possibly much earlier), Shamash and Aya were associated with a practice known as Hasadu, which is loosely translated as a “sacred marriage.”

A room would be set aside with a bed, and on certain occasions the temple statues of Shamash and Aya would be brought together and laid on the bed to ceremonially renew their vows. This ceremony was also practiced by the cults of Marduk with Sarpanitum, Nabu with Tashmetum, and Anu with Antu.

Inanna (Sumerian: Dinanna) was the Sumerian goddess of love, beauty, sex, desire, fertility, war, combat, and political power, equivalent to the Akkadian and Babylonian goddess Ishtar. She was also the patron goddess of the Eanna temple at the city of Uruk, which was her main cult center. She was associated with the planet Venus and her most prominent symbols included the lion and the eight-pointed star.

In Mesopotamian mythology, Ereshkigal (EREŠ.KI.GAL, lit. “Queen of the Great Earth”) was the goddess of Irkalla, the land of the dead or underworld. Sometimes her name is given as Irkalla, similar to the way the name Hades was used in Greek mythology for both the underworld and its ruler, and sometimes it is given as Ninkigal, lit. “Great Lady of the Earth” or “Lady of the Great Earth”. Ereshkigal was the only one who could pass judgment and give laws in her kingdom.

Ereshkigal is the older sister of the goddess, Inanna. Inanna and Ereshkigal represent polar opposites. Inanna is the Queen of Heaven, but Ereshkigal is the queen of Irkalla. Ereshkigal plays a very prominent and important role in two particular myths.

The Sun goddess of Arinna is the chief goddess and wife of the weather god Tarḫunna in Hittite mythology. She protected the Hittite kingdom and was called the “Queen of all lands.” Her cult centre was the sacred city of Arinna.

In addition to the Sun goddess of Arinna, the Hittites also worshipped the Sun goddess of the Earth and the Sun god of Heaven, while the Luwians originally worshipped the old Proto-Indo-European Sun god Tiwaz.

Tiwaz was the descendant of the male Sun god of the Indo-European religion, Dyeus, who was superseded among the Hittites by the Hattian Sun goddess of Arinna.

The name of the Proto-Anatolian Sun god can be reconstructed as *Diuod-, which derives from the Proto-Indo-European word *dei- (“shine”, “glow”). This name is cognate with the Greek Zeus, Latin Jupiter, and Norse Tyr.

While Tiwaz (and the related Palaic god Tiyaz) retained a promenant role in the pantheon, the Hittite cognate deity, Šiwat (de) was largely eclipsed by the Sun goddess of Arinna, becoming a god of the day, especially the day of death.

The Sun goddess of the Earth (Hittite: taknaš dUTU, Luwian: tiyamaššiš Tiwaz) was the Hittite goddess of the underworld. Her Hurrian equivalent was Allani (de) and her Sumerian/Akkadian equivalent was Ereshkigal, both of which had a marked influence on the Hittite goddess from an early date. In the Neo-Hittite period, the Hattian underworld god, Lelwani was also syncretised with her.

In Hittite texts she is referred to as the “Queen of the Underworld” and possesses a palace with a vizier and servants. As a personification of the chthonic aspects of the Sun, had the task of opening the doors to the Underworld. She was also the source of all evil, impurity, and sickness on Earth. She is mostly attested in curses, oaths, and purification rituals.

The Sun god of Heaven (Hittite: nepišaš Ištanu) was a Hittite solar deity. He was the second-most worshipped solar deity of the Hittites, after the Sun goddess of Arinna. The Sun god of Heaven was identified with the Hurrian solar deity, Šimige (de).

From the time of Tudḫaliya III, the Sun god of Heaven was the protector of the Hittite king, indicated by a winged solar disc on the royal seals, and was the god of the kingdom par excellence.

From the time of Suppiluliuma I (and probably earlier), the Sun god of Heaven played an important role as the foremost oath god in interstate treaties. As a result of the influence of the Mesopotamian Sun god Šamaš, the Sun god of Heaven also gained an important role as the god of law, legality, and truth.

In Norse mythology, Hel is a being who presides over a realm of the same name, where she receives a portion of the dead. She may have been considered a goddess with potential Indo-European parallels in Bhavani, Kali, and Mahakali.

The Old Norse feminine proper noun Hel is identical to the name of the location over which she rules, Old Norse Hel. The word has cognates in all branches of the Germanic languages, including Old English hell (and thus Modern English hell), Old Frisian helle, Old Saxon hellia, Old High German hella, and Gothic halja.

All forms ultimately derive from the reconstructed Proto-Germanic feminine noun *xaljō or *haljō (‘concealed place, the underworld’). In turn, the Proto-Germanic form derives from the o-grade form of the Proto-Indo-European root *kel-, *kol-: ‘to cover, conceal, save’.

Týr is a Germanic god associated with law and heroic glory in Norse mythology, portrayed as one-handed. Corresponding names in other Germanic languages are Gothic Teiws, Old English Tīw and Old High German Ziu and Cyo, all from Proto-Germanic *Tīwaz. The Latinised name is rendered as Tius or Tio and also formally as Mars Thincsus.

In the late Icelandic Eddas, Týr is portrayed, alternately, as the son of Odin (Prose Edda) or of Hymir (Poetic Edda), while the origins of his name and his possible relationship to Tuisto suggest he was once considered the father of the gods and head of the pantheon, since his name is ultimately cognate to that of *Dyeus (cf. Dyaus), the reconstructed chief deity in Indo-European religion.

It is assumed that Tîwaz was overtaken in popularity and in authority by both Odin and Thor at some point during the Migration Age, as Odin shares his role as God of war. Tiw was equated with Mars in the interpretatio germanica. Tuesday is “Tīw’s Day” (also in Alemannic Zischtig from zîes tag), translating dies Martis.

The Excerptum ex Gallica Historia of Ursberg (ca. 1135) records a dea Ciza as the patron goddess of Augsburg. According to this account, Cisaria was founded by Swabian tribes as a defence against Roman incursions. This Zisa would be the female consort of Ziu, as Dione was of Zeus.

Dione is translated as “Goddess”, and given the same etymological derivation as the names Zeus, Diana, et al., the goddess of the hunt, the moon, and nature being associated with wild animals and woodland, and having the power to talk to and control animals.

She was eventually equated with the Greek goddess Artemis. Diana was known to be the virgin goddess of childbirth and women. She was one of the three maiden goddesses, along with Minerva and Vesta, who swore never to marry.

One Dione is identified as the mother of the Roman goddess of love, Venus, or equivalently as the mother of the Greek goddess of love, Aphrodite; but Dione is also sometimes identified with Aphrodite.

The Master of (the) Animals or Lord of the Animals is a motif in ancient art showing a human between and grasping two confronted animals. It is very widespread in the art of the Ancient Near East and Egypt. The figure is normally male, but not always, the animals may be realistic or fantastical, and the figure may have animal elements such as horns, or an animal upper body.

Potnia Theron, a phrase used by Homer meaning “Mistress of the Animals” is used for early Greek depictions of goddesses, usually Artemis, holding animals. The Greek god shown as “Master of Animals” is usually Apollo, the god of hunting. Shiva has the epithet Pashupati meaning the “Lord of cattle”, and these figures may derive from a Proto-Indo-European deity or archetype.

The veil

Christina von Braun, The Headscarf – an Empty Signifier

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Den gyldne regel – Frihet, likhet og brorskap – Mars og Venus

Posted by Fredsvenn on June 19, 2017

Sjur Cappelen Papazian sitt bilde.

Sjur Cappelen Papazian sitt bilde.

Vi – bærere av korset – representerer verdenssivilisasjonen og er grunnleggerne av den nye gullalder – en verden basert på rettferdighet, frihet, fred og bærekraft.

Bak dualiteten skjuler enheten seg – innen taoismen blir dette kalt taiji. Denne filosofien har sin bakgrunn for 4000 år siden i Kina, men stammer fra det armenske høylandet.

De sentrale ideer innen taoismen kretser omkring begrepene tao og tê der det førstnevnte betegner den ytterste, evige og kreative realitet som er alle tings kilde som kan erfares gjennom den mystiske ekstase, og sistnevnte betegner manifestasjonen av tao i alle ting.

Det å besitte fylden av tê innebærer å være i fullkommen harmoni med ens opprinnelige natur. Den som har oppnådd en slik tilstand forstår naturens ordninger i sin helhet og trenger derfor ikke frykte noe verken i liv eller død.

En slik person er vis og avstår fra all formålsrettede og aktive handlinger. I stedet følger den vise prinsippet om wu-wei, som vil si den ikke-formålsrettede handling som er spontan (tzu-jan) og uten baktanker.

Dette er slike handlinger man er vitne til når en for eksempel ser fugler flyr og fisk svømmer. Naturens ordninger viser mennesket hvordan det bør innrette sitt liv.

Dette tilsvarer den maskuline og feminine kraft – anima og animus – sol og måne – dag og natt – lys og mørke – Væren og Vekten – Mars (mars-april) og Venus (september-oktober).

I indoeuropeisk religion har vi Dyeus (himmel / gud) og Hausha og i germansk religion har vi guden Tyr og gudinnen Ostara, som er den etymologiske bakgrunnen til Easter. I kristendommen har vi Jesus og Maria.

Alt tilsvarer de to motpolene, som både har sin opprinnelse og sammen danner et hele. Derfor har man for eksempel det sumeriske Ekur og skapelsens hus, det indiske yoni / shivaling og det greske omfalos.

I de vediske hymnene utgjør begrepet Ṛta (Sanskrit ṛtaṃ) det som er “riktig”, “utmerket”, “orden”, “regel”, “sannhet”, og er et prinsipp om en naturlig orden som regulerer og koordinerer universet.

I vedaen beskrives Ṛta som det som i siste instans er ansvarlig for den naturlige og moralske orden, og da især når det kommer til ofring. Ordet tilsvarer blant annet det norske begrepet rett.

Konseptuelt er begrepet nært knyttet til påleggene og ordinansene som er tenkt å opprettholde denne orden og som kollektivt blir referert til som Dharma, som vil si individets handling i forhold til disse ordinansene, referert til som karma. Disse to termene smeltet sammen i betydningen rta som betegnet den naturlige, religiøse og moralske orden i senere hinduisme.

Dharma betyr naturlov eller virkelighet, og kan i religiøs sammenheng oversettes til læren om den underliggende sannhet. Dharma kan også oversettes med «doktrine», «filosofi», «trosretning» eller «livsregel». Dharma er en naturlov som bestemmer alle regler i naturen.

Dharma stammer fra roten dhṛ, som betyr “å opprettholde”, og betyr det som er “hva som er etablert”, eller “lov”. Det kommer fra den eldre stammen dharman-, som betyr “opprettholder”, som er et aspekt av Rta. Det tilsvarer det greske begrepet om ethos, som vil si “forordning”, “statutt” eller “lov”. Begrepet benyttes i hinduisme, buddhisme, jainisme og sikhisme.

Brahman er et sentralt begrep innen hinduismen og indisk filosofi. Brahman er det høyeste universelle prinsippet, den ultimate realitet, den uendrede permanente, høyeste realiteten. Brahman er alt som er stabilt og fast, men samtidig årsaken til at alt endrer seg. Det er det som binder alt som eksisterer sammen.

Ishvara er et konsept innen hinduismen som i ulike kontekster kan bety den øverste sjel, hersker, konge, dronning, ektemann, kone mm., men også gud og øverste vesen. Det er synonymt med Shiva, men også med Vishnu. Ishvara er en monistisk universell absolutt som forbinder alt og alle.

Brahman er «verdenssjelen» – det store verdensaltet, den guddommelige virkeligheten, «Gud finnes i alt» – som menneskets sjel, atman, forsøker å gå inn i. Begrepet er særlig viktig i Vedanta-filosofien, og hinduistiske slekter som kommer derfra.

Upanishadene, som er de eldste tekstene innen Vedanta, beskriver Brahman på ulike måter. Det er evig, endeløst og grenseløst, og er den urolige kilden for alt i universet. Brahman er årsaken til verden og alle skapninger. Det fins i alt og over alt, og er det innerste jeget for alle vesener.

Brahman skapte universet fra kaos og holder (dhar-) jorda og solen fra hverandre, holder (dhar-) himmelen og jorda fra hverandre og stabiliserer (dhar-) fjellene og slettene. Gudene, og da hovedsaklig Indra, opprettholder den guddommelige orden gjennom handlinger forbundet med dharma.

Shiva er endringen, den som transformerer, innen Trimurti, den hinduistiske treenigheten som inkluderer Brahma og Vishnu. Shiva skaper, forsvarer og endrer universet. På sitt høyeste nivå blir Shiva ansett som formløs, grenseløs, oversanslig og uendret. Den absolutte Brahman, samt Atman, som vil si universets sjel.

Om er en hellig lyd og et et spirituelt ikon innen hinduismen. Det er et mantra innen hinduismen, buddhismen, jainismen og sikhismen. Symbolet har en spirituell betydning i alle indiske dharmaer.

Innen hinduismen utgjør Om en av de viktigste spirituelle symbolene. Det refererer til Atman, eller sjelen, og Brahman, den ultimate realitet, universet, sannhet, goddommelig, det kosmiske prinsipp, kunnskap. Stavelsen blir som oftest funnet i begynnelsen og slutten i kapitlene i vedaene, upanishadaene osv.

I hinduismen er Dharma en annen type kraft enn Brahman, og det diskuteres mellom hinduer hva som er sterkest: Brahman eller Dharma. Mens Brahman styrer alt guddommelig i verden styrer Dharma alt det andre, som vil si fysiske lover, naturlover og er det som kan gjøre ting logisk.

I buddhismen brukes dharma synonymt med Buddhas lære, eller buddhadharma. Buddha giver heri sin erkjennelse og sin oppfordrende metode til å oppnå Nirvana. I Buddhas lære inngår De fire hellige sannheter som fører mennesket ut av et liv i uvitenhet, som er det første leddet i årsakskjeden.

Hans anbefalte metode til veien mot frelse, innsikt og erkjennelse skal ses som en gave til mennesket, men Buddha understreker dog, at den enkelte først skal erfare noe selv samt finner det sant, før han skal tro på det.

Manus lover, også kjent som Mānava-Dharmaśāstra, er en lærebok i riktig livsførsel – dharma, og er en av de tidligste tekstene i Dharmashastra tradisjonen i hinduismen, som ifølge hinduistisk tradisjon skal være Brahmas egne ord. Vanligvis dateres teksten til en gang mellom 200 f.vt. og 200 e.vt.

Teksten har form av undervisning gitt av Manu, hinduismens «første menneske», til en gruppe lærde. Teksten ble et standardverk som alle senere bøker i Dharmashastra tradisjonen forholdt seg til. I tillegg til etikk for de fire kastene, som er tekstens hoveddel, inneholder verket en kort drøfting av lovens kilder, og et åpningskapittel som skildrer verdens skapelse.

Mannus nevnes hos Tacitus som en forfaderskikkelse som germanerne fortalte om. Navnet Mannus betyr simpelthen «mann» eller «menneske». Mannus sies å ha vært sønn av Tuisto / Tyr. Han ligner Manu i vedaene.

Sanskritskolar Maurice Bloomfield refererte til Ṛta som “et av de viktigste religiøse oppfatningene innen Rig Vedaen”. Han hevdet at vi fra et historisk ståsted når det kommer til religiøse ideer må begynne historien om hinduistisk religion med historien om denne oppfatningen.

Imidlertid er begrepet en universell naturlig orden på ingen måte unikt for vedaene, og det har blitt sammenlignet med lignende ideer i andre kulturer, for eksempel Ma’at i gammel egyptisk religion, Moira og logo i gresk hedenskap og Tao.

Asha / Arta er et avestansk konsept innen den zoroastriske teologien og doktrinen. I den moralske sfæren utgjør begrepet det som blir kalt “det avgjørende konfessjonelle konseptet innen zoroastrianismen.”

Betydningen av begrepet er kompleks, med et svært nyansert spekter av betydninger, som ofte blir oppsummert i samsvar med kontekstuelle implikasjoner av “sannhet”, “høyre orden” og “det som er rett”. Det motsatte prinsippet er druj, som betyr “løgn”.

Innen zoroastrismen er Mithra et medlem av treenigheten av ahuraer, som forsvarer arta / asha. Relatert til hans posisjon som vokter av sannheten er Mithra en dommer (ratu), som sikrer at individer som bryter løfter eller ikke er rettferdige (artavan) ikke kommer til paradis. Mithra er forbundet med solen, men også adskilt fra den.

Både vedisk Mitra og Avestan Mithra stammer fra substantivet *mitra-, som betyr “pakt”, “avtale”, “overenskomst” og “lovnad.” Mitra betyr “venn”, og er et av aspektene som knytter en allianse. Brorskap. Den første tilstedeværelsen av Mitra, i form av mi-it-ra-, er fredsavtalen mellom hettittene og hurrierne i Mitanni fra 1400 f. vt.

Ishara (išḫara) er en gudinne av ukjent forbindelse fra det nordlige Syria. Det er en kjærlighetsgudinne som ofte blir identifisert som den protoindoeuropeiske Hausha, Venus, Ostara, Ishtara eller Inanna. Ishara er det hetittiske begrepet for “avtale”, “pakt” og “lovnad”. Det er gudinnen for løfter / ed. Hun er forbundet med underverden og personifiserte konstellasjonen Skorpionen / Vekten.

Maat er i egyptisk mytologi gudinne og forvalter av sannhet, rett og orden. Hun ble likestilt med greske Themis og den romerske Justitia, jussens gudinne.

Maat var også personifisert som en gudinne som regulerte stjernene, sesongene og handlingene til både vanlige mennesker som guder, og den som satte orden i universet fra kaos ved skapelsens øyeblikk. Hennes ideologiske motpart var Isfet, som betyr “urett”, kaos”, “vold”, eller som verbet “å gjøre ondt”.

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