Cradle of Civilization

A Blog about the Birth of Our Civilisation and Development

Archive for May 19th, 2017

Skikken med å krysse fingrene

Posted by Fredsvenn on May 19, 2017

Skikken med å krysse fingrene i håp om at noe skal gå bra, er vanlig i den kristne delen av verden. De kryssede fingrene skal ligne et kors som hindrer ondskap.

Andre måter å avverge ondskap på er å slå korsets tegn for brystet og banke i bordet. Trolig er berøringen av et eller annet av tre en henvisning til trekorset som Jesus skal ha blitt korsfestet på.

Bokstaven Tau i det greske alfabetet stammer fra den fønikiske bokstaven taw (X), som også ble til den latinske bokstaven T og kyrillisk Te. Bokstaven ble brukt som et symbol på liv og gjenoppstandelse, mens den åttende bokstaven i det greske alfabetet, theta, ble ansett som symbolet på døden.

Bokstaven har samtidig sin bakgrunn i det sumeriske ordet for liv, ti, og på gud, dingir, som kun ble omtalt som T, samt på det protoindoeuropeiske ordet for gud, Dyeus, som blant annet kom til å utvikle seg til navnet på ledende guder som Zeus og Tyr.

Dingir – Tau and Theta

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The Phrygian Cap – the Symbol of Liberty

Posted by Fredsvenn on May 19, 2017

Sjur Cappelen Papazian sitt bilde.

Illustration shows a gigantic boar wearing a crown with “$” and a shawl labeled “Plutocratic Greed” and holding the U.S. Capitol dome labeled “Special Privilege”, inverted to form a bucket from which it is sowing seeds labeled “Abuse of Power, Arrogance, [and] Contempt of Law” onto a field sprouting “Socialist votes”. It is stepping on an American flag and a Liberty cap.

Title: The seeds of socialism / Keppler.
Creator(s): Keppler, Udo J., 1872-1956, artist
Date Created/Published: N.Y. : J. Ottmann Lith. Co., Puck Bldg., 1908 February 12.

My Symbol – My Way – The Symbol of Mankind / Nature

The Phrygian “Liberty” Cap – The Symbol of Justice and Freedom – The Symbol of Aries / Libra – The First and the Seventh Astrological Signs in the Zodiac – The Equinoxes – The Sping / Autumn – The Golden Age – Astraea / Justitia / Lady Justice – Venus / Mars – Ostara / Tyr – Maria / Jesus – The Medium of Awakening.

Ama-gi is a Sumerian word written ama-gi or ama-ar-gi. It has been translated as “freedom”, as well as “manumission”, “exemption from debts or obligations”, and “the restoration of persons and property to their original status” including the remission of debts. Other interpretations include a “reversion to a previous state” and release from debt, slavery, taxation or punishment.

The word originates from the noun ama “mother” (sometimes with the enclitic dative case marker ar), and the present participle gi “return, restore, put back”, thus literally meaning “returning to mother”.

Assyriologist Samuel Noah Kramer has identified it as the first known written reference to the concept of freedom. Referring to its literal meaning “return to the mother”, he wrote in 1963 that “we still do not know why this figure of speech came to be used for “freedom.””

The earliest known usage of the word was in the reforms of Urukagina. By the Third Dynasty of Ur, it was used as a legal term for the manumission of individuals. It is related to the Akkadian word anduraāru(m), meaning “freedom”, “exemption” and “release from (debt) slavery”. A number of Libertarian organizations have adopted the cuneiform glyph as a symbol.

Ishara (išḫara) is an ancient deity of unknown origin from northern modern Syria. She first appeared in Ebla from the mid 3rd millennium. In Ebla, there were various logographic spellings involving the sign AMA “mother”.

Ishara is a pre-Hurrian and perhaps pre-Semitic deities, later incorporated into the Hurrian pantheon. In Hurrian and Semitic traditions, Išḫara is a love goddess, often identified with Ishtar / Inanna. In Alalah, her name was written with the Akkadogram IŠTAR plus a phonetic complement -ra, as IŠTAR-ra.

From the Hurrian pantheon she found her way to the Hittite pantheon. Ishara is the Hittite word for “treaty, binding promise”, also personified as a goddess of the oath.

She was associated with the underworld. Her astrological embodiment is the constellation Scorpio and she is called the mother of the Sebitti (the Seven Stars).

Variants of the name appear as Ašḫara (in a treaty of Naram-Sin of Akkad with Hita of Elam) and Ušḫara (in Ugarite texts).

One of the most important goddesses of reconstructed Proto-Indo-European religion is the personification of dawn as a beautiful young woman. Her name is reconstructed as Hausōs or Ausōs (PIE *h₂éwsōs, an s-stem), besides numerous epithets.

The dawn goddess was also the goddess of spring, involved in the mythology of the Indo-European new year, where the dawn goddess is liberated from imprisonment by a god.

Ushas, Sanskrit for “dawn”, is a Vedic deity, and consequently a Hindu deity as well. In one recent Hindu interpretation, Sri Aurobindo in his Secret of the Veda, described Ushas as “the medium of the awakening, the activity and the growth of the other gods; she is the first condition of the Vedic realisation. By her increasing illumination the whole nature of man is clarified; through her [mankind] arrives at the Truth, through her he enjoys [Truth’s] beatitude.”

*Mitra is the reconstructed Proto-Indo-Iranian name of an Indo-Iranian divinity from which the names and some characteristics of Rigvedic Mitrá and Avestan Mithra derive. The first extant record of Indic Mitra, in the form mi-it-ra-, is in the inscribed peace treaty of c. 1400 BC between Hittites and the Hurrian kingdom of the Mitanni in the area southeast of Lake Van in Asia Minor.

Both Vedic Mitra and Avestan Mithra derive from an Indo-Iranian common noun *mitra-, generally reconstructed to have meant “covenant, treaty, agreement, promise.” This meaning is preserved in Avestan miθra “covenant.” In Sanskrit and modern Indo-Aryan languages, mitra means “friend,” one of the aspects of bonding and alliance.

In the colossal statuary erected by King Antiochus I (69–34 BC), an Armenian king from the Kingdom of Commagene and the most famous king of that kingdom, at Mount Nemrut, Mithras is shown beardless, wearing a Phrygian cap, and was originally seated on a throne alongside other deities and the king himself.

The Phrygian cap is still being used as a revolutionary symbol, more than 200 years after the French Revolution. The French diplomat, member of the French Resistance and concentration camp survivor Stéphane Hessel recently wore a Phrygian cap while speaking at a pro-Palestinian rally.

Hessel’s best-selling pamphlet, Indignez-Vous! (Time for Outrage!), is a 35-page book written by Hessel in 2010 which have sold 3 million copies in 30 languages and inspired protests like “Occupy” in the US and The Indignados in Spain.

The 94-year-old author starts with a brief reference to his participation in the French Resistance at the end of the Second World War, pointing out that outrage was at its roots.

The author asserts that indifference is the worst of attitudes. He speaks of his experience among the drafters of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and exhorts young people to look around for topics of indignation.

He then presents his own principal indignation at present, the strife in Palestine, the Gaza strip and the West Bank. He ends the tract by calling for non-violent action and for a peaceful uprising against the powers of finance capitalism.

In 2011, one of the names given to the 2011 Spanish protests against corruption and bipartisan politics was Los Indignados (The Outraged), taken from the title of the book’s translation there (¡Indignaos!).

The Spanish protests later inspired other protests all around the world, including Greece, Israel and Occupy Wall Street in the US and the Manifiesto de los Indignados de la Cruz del Sur, written by philosopher Eduardo Sanguinetti, released in Montevideo in December 2011.

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The Music of Komitas

Posted by Fredsvenn on May 19, 2017

Soghomon Soghomonian, ordained and commonly known as Komitas, (26 September 1869 – 22 October 1935) was an Armenian priest, musicologist, composer, arranger, singer, and choirmaster, who is considered the founder of Armenian national school of music. He is recognized as one of the pioneers of ethnomusicology.

Orphaned at a young age, Komitas was taken to Etchmiadzin, Armenia’s religious center, where he received education at the Gevorgian Seminary. Following his ordination as vardapet (celibate priest) in 1895, he studied music at the Frederick William University in Berlin.

He thereafter “used his Western training to build a national tradition”. He collected and transcribed over 3,000 pieces of Armenian folk music, more than half of which were subsequently lost and only around 1,200 are now extant.

Besides Armenian folk songs, he also showed interested in other cultures and in 1904 published the first-ever collection of Kurdish folk songs. His choir presented Armenian music in many European cities, earning the praise of Claude Debussy, among others.

Komitas settled in Constantinople in 1910 to escape mistreatment by ultra-conservative clergymen at Etchmiadzin and to introduce Armenian folk music to wider audiences. He was widely embraced by Armenian communities, while Arshag Chobanian called him the “savior of Armenian music”.

During the Armenian Genocide — along with hundreds of other Armenian intellectuals — Komitas was arrested and deported to a prison camp in April 1915 by the Ottoman government.

He was soon released under unclear circumstances and experienced a mental breakdown and developed a severe case of Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

The widespread hostile environment in Constantinople and reports of mass-scale Armenian death marches and massacres that reached him further worsened his fragile mental state.

He was first placed in a Turkish military-operated hospital until 1919 and then transferred to psychiatric hospitals in Paris, where he spent the last years of his life in agony.

Komitas is widely seen as a martyr of the genocide and has been depicted as one of the main symbols of the Armenian Genocide in art.

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The Birth of Our Civilization, the Indo European Languages, Mitra (Mitanni) and Mars (Armenia – Aryans)

Posted by Fredsvenn on May 19, 2017

The Sun goddess of Arinna is the chief goddess and wife of the weather god Tarḫunna in Hittite mythology. She protected the Hittite kingdom and was called the “Queen of all lands.” Her cult centre was the sacred city of Arinna.

In addition to the Sun goddess of Arinna, the Hittites also worshipped the Sun goddess of the Earth and the Sun god of Heaven, while the Luwians originally worshipped the old Proto-Indo-European Sun god Tiwaz.

Týr is a Germanic god associated with law and heroic glory in Norse mythology, portrayed as one-handed. It is assumed that Tîwaz was overtaken in popularity and in authority by both Odin and Thor at some point during the Migration Age, as Odin shares his role as God of war.

Tacitus relates that “ancient songs” (Latin carminibus antiquis) of the Germanic peoples celebrated Tuisto as “a god, born of the earth” (deum terra editum). The names Mannus and Tuisto/Tuisco seem to have some relation to Proto-Germanic Mannaz, “man” and Tiwaz, “Tyr, the god”.

These songs further attributed to him a son, Mannus, who in turn had three sons, the offspring of whom were referred to as Ingaevones, Herminones and Istaevones, living near the Ocean (proximi Oceano), in the interior (medii), and the remaining parts (ceteri) of the geographical region of Germania, respectively.

Tiw was equated with Mars in the interpretatio germanica. Tuesday is “Tīw’s Day” (also in Alemannic Zischtig from zîes tag), translating dies Martis. Mars represented military power as a way to secure peace, and was a father (pater) of the Roman people.

In the mythic genealogy and founding myths of Rome, Mars was the father of Romulus and Remus with Rhea Silvia. His love affair with Venus symbolically reconciled the two different traditions of Rome’s founding; Venus was the divine mother of the hero Aeneas, celebrated as the Trojan refugee who “founded” Rome several generations before Romulus laid out the city walls.

Minni is an ethnonym attested in the Hebrew Bible, possibly the Mannaeans. In the Bible (Jeremiah 51:27) the Mannaeans are called Minni. In the Jewish Encyclopedia (1906), Minni is identified with Armenia, but it could refer to one of the provinces in ancient Armenia; Minni, Ararat and Ashkenaz.

According to examinations of the place and personal names found in Assyrian and Urartian texts, the Mannaeans, or at least their rulers, spoke Hurrian, a non-Semitic and non-Indo-European language related to Urartian, with no modern language connections.

After suffering several defeats at the hands of both Scythians and Assyrians, the remnants of the Mannaean populace were absorbed by an Iranian people known as the Matieni and the area became known as Matiene.

The name Matiene is believed to be related to Mitanni which was founded by an Indo-Aryan ruling class governing the Hurrian population. It was then annexed by the Medes in about 609 BC.

The Halaf culture is a prehistoric period which lasted between about 6100 BCE and 5100 BCE. The period is a continuous development out of the earlier Pottery Neolithic and is located primarily in south-eastern Turkey, Syria, and northern Iraq, although Halaf-influenced material is found throughout Greater Mesopotamia.

Previously, the Syrian plains were not considered as the homeland of Halaf culture, and the Halafians were seen either as hill people who descended from the nearby mountains of southeastern Anatolia, or herdsmen from northern Iraq.

However, those views changed with the recent archaeology conducted since 1986. A formerly unknown transitional culture between the pre-Halaf Neolithic’s era and Halaf’s era was uncovered in the Balikh valley, at Tell Sabi Abyad (the Mound of the White Boy).

The new archaeology demonstrated that Halaf culture was not sudden and was not the result of foreign people, but rather a continuous process of indigenous cultural changes in northern Syria, that spread to the other regions.

The Halaf period was succeeded by the Halaf-Ubaid Transitional period which comprised the late Halaf (c. 5400-5000 BC), and then by the Ubaid period. In South Mesopotamia the period is the earliest known period on the alluvial plain although it is likely earlier periods exist obscured under the alluvium.

The Armenian hypothesis of the Proto-Indo-European homeland, proposed by Georgian (Tamaz V. Gamkrelidze) and Russian linguist Vyacheslav Ivanov in 1985, suggests that Proto-Indo-European was spoken during the 4th millennium BC in the Armenian Highlands.

They claim that the Indo-European languages came from a language in Armenia to the Pontic steppe from which it expanded, according to the Kurgan hypothesis, into Western Europe. The Hittite, Indo-Iranian, Greek and Armenian branches split from the Armenian homeland.

It is an Indo-Hittite model and does not include the Anatolian languages in its scenario, which are identified with the Kura-Araxes culture. It opposes the Anatolian hypothesis in spite of the geographical proximity of the respective suggested Urheimaten by diverging from the timeframe suggested there by as much as three millennia.

Graeco-Aryan (or Graeco-Armeno-Aryan) is a hypothetical clade within the Indo-European family, ancestral to the Greek language, the Armenian language, and the Indo-Iranian languages. Graeco-Aryan unity would have become divided into Proto-Greek and Proto-Indo-Iranian by the mid 3rd millennium BC.

Conceivably, Proto-Armenian would have been located between Proto-Greek and Proto-Indo-Iranian, consistent with the fact that Armenian shares certain features only with Indo-Iranian (the satem change) but others only with Greek (s > h).

Graeco-Aryan has comparatively wide support among Indo-Europeanists for the Indo-European Homeland to be located in the Armenian Highland. Early and strong evidence was given by Euler’s 1979 examination on shared features in Greek and Sanskrit nominal flection.

Used in tandem with the Graeco-Armenian hypothesis, the Armenian language would also be included under the label Aryano-Greco-Armenic, splitting into proto-Greek/Phrygian and “Armeno-Aryan” (ancestor of Armenian and Indo-Iranian).

In the context of the Kurgan hypothesis, Greco-Aryan is also known as “Late PIE” or “Late Indo-European” (LIE), suggesting that Greco-Aryan forms a dialect group which corresponds to the latest stage of linguistic unity in the Indo-European homeland in the early part of the 3rd millennium BC. By 2500 BC, Proto-Greek and Proto-Indo-Iranian had separated, moving westward and eastward from the Pontic Steppe, respectively.

The phonological peculiarities proposed in the glottalic theory would be best preserved in Armenian and the Germanic languages. Armenian remained in situ and would be particularly archaic despite of its late attestation.

Proto-Greek would be practically equivalent to Mycenaean Greek from the 17th century BC and closely associate Greek migration to Greece with the Indo-Aryan migration to India at about the same time (the Indo-European expansion at the transition to the Late Bronze Age, including the possibility of Indo-European Kassites.

Graeco-Armenian (also Helleno-Armenian) is the hypothetical common ancestor of the Greek and Armenian languages that postdates the Proto-Indo-European language (PIE).

The hypothetical Proto-Graeco-Armenian stage would need to date to the 3rd millennium BC, only barely differentiated from either late PIE or Graeco-Armeno-Aryan.

The Armeno-Phrygians are a hypothetical people who, according to a some scholars, lived in the Armenian Highland as a group and then have separated to form the Phrygians and the Mushki of Cappadocia. It is also used for the language they are spoken.

It can also be used for a language branch including these languages, a branch of the Indo-European family or a sub-branch of the proposed Graeco-Armeno-Aryan or Armeno-Aryan branch. Classification is difficult because little is known of Phrygian and virtually nothing of Mushki, while Proto-Armenian arguably forms a subgroup with Greek, and Indo-Iranian.

Maryannu is an ancient word for the caste of chariot-mounted hereditary warrior nobility which existed in many of the societies of the Middle East during the Bronze Age.

The term is attested in the Amarna letters written by Haapi. Robert Drews writes that the name ‘maryannu’ although plural takes the singular ‘marya’, which in Sanskrit means young warrior, and attaches a Hurrian suffix.

He suggests that at the beginning of the Late Bronze Age most would have spoken either Hurrian or Aryan but by the end of the 14th century most of the Levant maryannu had Semitic names.

The first extant record of Indic Mitra, in the form mi-it-ra-, is in the inscribed peace treaty of c. 1400 BC between Hittites and the Hurrian kingdom of the Mitanni in the area southeast of Lake Van in Asia Minor. Mitra appears there together with four other Indic divinities as witnesses and keepers of the pact.

Vedic Mitra is a prominent deity of the Rigveda distinguished by a relationship to Varuna, the protector of rta. Together with Varuna, he counted among the Adityas, a group of solar deities, also in later Vedic texts. Vedic Mitra is the patron divinity of honesty, friendship, contracts and meetings.

Both Vedic Mitra and Avestan Mithra derive from an Indo-Iranian common noun *mitra-, generally reconstructed to have meant “covenant, treaty, agreement, promise.” This meaning is preserved in Avestan miθra “covenant.” In Sanskrit and modern Indo-Aryan languages, mitra means “friend,” one of the aspects of bonding and alliance.

In the Vedic religion, Ṛta (Sanskrit ṛtaṃ “that which is properly/excellently joined; order, rule; truth”) is the principle of natural order which regulates and coordinates the operation of the universe and everything within it.

Asha is the Avestan language term for a concept of cardinal importance to Zoroastrian theology and doctrine. Its Old Persian equivalent is arta-. In Middle Iranian languages the term appears as ard-.

In the moral sphere, aša/arta represents what has been called “the decisive confessional concept of Zoroastrianism.” The significance of the term is complex, with a highly nuanced range of meaning. It is commonly summarized in accord with its contextual implications of ‘truth’ and ‘right(eousness)’, ‘order’ and ‘right working’. The opposite of Avestan aša is druj, “lie.”

Mitanni, also called Hanigalbat (Hanigalbat, Khanigalbat cuneiform Ḫa-ni-gal-bat) in Assyrian, was a Hurrian-speaking state in northern Syria and southeast Anatolia from ca. 1500 BC–1300 BC. Hittite annals mention a people called Hurri (Ḫu-ur-ri), located in northeastern Syria.

The ethnicity of the people of Mitanni is difficult to ascertain. A treatise on the training of chariot horses by Kikkuli contains a number of Indo-Aryan glosses. It suggested that this vocabulary was derived from the still undivided Indo-Iranian language. However, it has been proven that specifically Indo-Aryan features are present.

Thutmose III of Egypt, the first Pharaoh to cross the Euphrates to reach the Armenian Highlands), mention the people of Ermenen in 1446 BC, and says in their land “heaven rests upon its four pillars”. To this day Kurds and Turks refer to Armenians by Ermeni.

Hurrian is related to Urartian, the language of Urartu, both belonging to the Hurro-Urartian language family. he present-day Armenians are an amalgam of the Indo-European groups with the Hurrians and Urartians.

Urartu, also known as Kingdom of Van, was an Iron Age kingdom centred on Lake Van in the Armenian Highlands. It corresponds to the biblical Kingdom of Ararat.

In the early sixth century BC, Urartu was replaced by the Armenian Orontid Dynasty. In the trilingual Behistun Inscription, carved in 521 or 520 BC by the order of Darius I, the country referred to as Urartu in Assyrian is called Arminiya in Old Persian and Harminuia in the Elamite language.

The Mitanni kingdom was referred to as the Maryannu, Nahrin or Mitanni by the Egyptians, the Hurri by the Hittites, and the Hanigalbat by the Assyrians. The different names seem to have referred to the same kingdom and were used interchangeably

Mithras is the god from whom Christians got their myth of Christ’s divinity. He is the god of Mithraism, a religion which started in Mitanni. Mitanni was the first land to become Mithraist.

From Mitanni, it spread across Armenia, Phrygia, Commagene, Cappadocia, Pontus, and Georgia [Iberia and Colchis]. His Phrygian connection is shown in his icons, where he usually wears a Phrygian cap, an international symbol of freedom.

When Phrygia, Cappadocia and Armenia were annexed by the Roman Empire, it became the main religion of the Roman Army and spread across the whole Empire as far as Hadrian’s wall. Emperor Constantine merged Mithraism with Christianity to make Catholicism.

Elements from Mithraism still preserved in Catholicism but not from early Christianity: pope, Vatican, divinity of Jesus, virgin birth of Jesus, priesthood, eucharist (bread and wine), Christmas (December 25), Sunday worship instead of Sabbath.

The Armeno-Phrygian roots of Mithraism plus the fact that Armenians are the only nationality which were at one time almost all Mithraist which still exists gives an Armeno-Phrygian identity to the religion.

Mithra was attested as early as 1450 B.C.E., so he is at least 3500 years old. In Armenia, Mithraism at least partially merged with Zoroastrianism after the Persian conquest.

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Den mytologiske bakgrunnen for vår grunnlov og nasjonaldag

Posted by Fredsvenn on May 19, 2017

Gud er alt og hans lover gjelder for alle – rik eller fattig, svart eller hvit, mann eller kvinne. Ved å forstå naturen rundt oss og naturens gang forstår vi Gud. Vitenskapen er med andre ord læren om Gud. Og ettersom vi er en del av et organisk hele så er det også læren om oss selv. Om ikke så er naturen rundt oss Guds skaperverk, og det er gjennom å forstå naturen at vi kan forstå Gud og lære han å kjenne. Uansett er Gud ganske så likegyldig. Det handler om å forstå verden rundt oss og vår rolle i forhold til denne.

I eldre tider undret man seg over ting som vi i dag tar for gitt. Samtidig trengte man en begrunnelse for at samfunnet var organisert slik det var. Man skapte mytologi og religion. Den er basert på naturen rundt oss. Etter hvert størknet den. Man glemte hva det egentlig handlet om. Og ettersom mytologien og religionen ikke lenger kunne svare på spørsmålene vi stilte utviklet man materialismen og vitenskapen.

Senere har dette igjen utviklet seg til å bli noe som nærmest kan bli oppfattet som religion. Det eneste vi mangler er templer. Men så var jo også fortidens templer en slags kornsiloer, som på mange måter fungerte som datidens banker. Problemet er at man desverre ikke kan tilskrive dagens bankvirksomhet noen etiske retningslinjer. Kriminelle som de er.

Uansett kan dagens forståelse av naturen som en størrelse der alt organisk hører sammen føre til en desentralisering av makt og skape nettverksbaserte sammenslutninger. Dette vil på nytt føre oss inn i en økologisk tenkemåte og skape et bærekraftig samfunn.

Frigjøringsgudinnen er en gammel solgudinne som utviklet seg til å representere Venus, slik Mars utviklet seg fra en solgud, men kom til å representere Mars.

Sammen representerer de det maskuline og feminine, mann og kvinne. Tyr og Ostara. Vår og høst jevndøgn. Væren og Vekten. Balansen i naturen. Det er Ama, vår mor, naturen rundt oss.

Man kan finne henne tilbake til de tidligste mytologier og religioner. Det er den protoindoeuropiske gudinnen Hausha. Den sumeriske gudinnen Sherida. Gudinnen av Arinna.

Hun representerer frihet og rettferdighet og er forbundet med den såkalte armeno-frygiske frigjøringslua og med den franske revolusjon.

Mitanni, som kontrollerte så å si hele det nordlige Anatolia, ble kalt Maryannu, som var tittelen på den proto-indoariske krigerkasten og som betyr ung kriger. Mars / Maria.

Første funn av navnet på guden Mitra (i form mi-it-ra-) er fra en fredsavtalen av mellom hetittene og Mitanni i området sørøst for innsjøen van i Lilleasia rundt 1400 f.vt. På hodet hadde Mitra den typiske armeno-frygiske frigjøringslua.

Minni, et etnonym i Bibelen brukt for å refere til mannea, blir identifisert med Armenia, men det kan referere til en av provinsene i det gamle Armenia; Minni, Ararat og Ashkenaz.

Ifølge undersøkelser av stedet og personlige navn som ble funnet i assyriske og urartiske tekster var de hurriere. De ble etter hvert absorbert av et indo-iransk folk kjent som Matieni, og området ble kjent som Matiene, som antas å være relatert til Mitanni. Det ble en del av Media i ca 609 f.vt.

Mannus nevnes hos Tacitus som en forfaderskikkelse som germanerne fortalte om. Navnet Mannus betyr simpelthen «mann» eller «menneske». Mannus sies å ha vært sønn av Tuisto. Han kan ikke helt klart identifiseres med noen skikkelse i norrøn mytologi, men han ligner Manu i vedaene.

Tuisto var ifølge Tacitus en «gud som var født på jorden» og som germanerne så på som et forfaderskikkelse. Tuisto var far til Mannus. Tuisto ligner Tvastar som er kjent fra vedaene. Navnene Mannus og Tuisto/Tuisco synes å ha vært forbundet med det proto-germanske Mannaz, “man” og Tiwaz, “gud”.

Tyr har ellers gitt navn til den andre dagen i uka, tirsdag, som heter tisdag på svensk og tysdag på nynorsk. Tyr var krigsgud i germansk og norrøn mytologi, og da germanerne oversatte det latinske navnet på tirsdag, Martis dies, krigsguden Mars’ dag, ble denne dagen til det norrøne Týs-dagr.

Den mytologiske bakgrunnen for vår grunnlov og nasjonaldag

Inspirasjonen bak den franske revolusjonen og grunnloven, som igjen ga inspirasjon til vår egen grunnlov, var på den ene siden observasjoner av indianerråd i Amerika. De var lei av eneveldet, og hadde sans for det “de ville” indianerne drev med.

Samtidig kom inspirasjonen fra vår egen sivilisasjon hvor frihet, rettferdighet og brorskap har ligget som en basis hele tiden – til tross for at det kontinuerlig har vært en kamp for å beholde og videreutvikle disse begrepene i praksis.

På mange måter henger det sammen med vår- og høstjevndøgn, Væren og Vekten, Mars og Venus, Jesus og Maria mm mm. Symbolene som ble brukt er uansett representasjoner av vår mytologiske fortid.

Det dreier seg med andre ord om kampen mellom mørket og lyset. Mellom natt og dag. Vinter og sommer. Tyranni og frihet. Forskjellsbehandling og likeverd. Uvitenhet og opplysning. Ubevisst og bevisst.

Frigjøringsgudinnen er en gammel solgudinne som utviklet seg til å representere Venus, slik Mars utviklet seg fra en solgud, men kom til å representere Mars.

Sammen representerer de det maskuline og feminine, mann og kvinne. Tyr og Ostara. Vår og høst jevndøgn. Væren og Vekten. Balansen i naturen. Det er Ama, vår mor, naturen rundt oss.

Man kan finne henne tilbake til de tidligste mytologier og religioner. Det er den protoindoeuropiske gudinnen Hausha. Den sumeriske gudinnen Sherida. Gudinnen av Arinna.

Hun representerer frihet og rettferdighet og er forbundet med den såkalte armeno-frygiske frigjøringslua og med den franske revolusjon.

To guder som er forbundet med den såkalte armeno-frygiske frigjøringslua er Mitra og Mars, som har gitt navn til måneden mars og til stjernebildet Væren (Aries).

Mitanni, som kontrollerte så å si hele det nordlige Anatolia, ble kalt Maryannu, som var tittelen på den proto-indoariske krigerkasten og som betyr ung kriger. Mars / Maria.

Første funn av navnet på guden Mitra (i form mi-it-ra-) er fra en fredsavtalen av mellom hetittene og Mitanni i området sørøst for innsjøen van i Lilleasia rundt 1400 f.vt. 

Minni, et etnonym i Bibelen brukt for å refere til Mannea, blir identifisert med Armenia, men det kan referere til en av provinsene i det gamle Armenia; Minni, Ararat og Ashkenaz.

Ifølge undersøkelser av stedet og personlige navn som ble funnet i assyriske og urartiske tekster var de hurriere. De ble etter hvert absorbert av et indo-iransk folk kjent som Matieni, og området ble kjent som Matiene, som antas å være relatert til Mitanni. Det ble en del av Media i ca 609 f.vt.

Mannus nevnes hos Tacitus som en forfaderskikkelse som germanerne fortalte om. Navnet Mannus betyr simpelthen «mann» eller «menneske». Mannus sies å ha vært sønn av Tuisto. Han kan ikke helt klart identifiseres med noen skikkelse i norrøn mytologi, men han ligner Manu i vedaene.

Tuisto var ifølge Tacitus en «gud som var født på jorden» og som germanerne så på som et forfaderskikkelse. Tuisto var far til Mannus. Tuisto ligner Tvastar som er kjent fra vedaene. Navnene Mannus og Tuisto/Tuisco synes å ha vært forbundet med det proto-germanske Mannaz, “man” og Tiwaz, “gud”.

Tyr har ellers gitt navn til den andre dagen i uka, tirsdag, som heter tisdag på svensk og tysdag på nynorsk. Tyr var krigsgud i germansk og norrøn mytologi, og da germanerne oversatte det latinske navnet på tirsdag, Martis dies, krigsguden Mars’ dag, ble denne dagen til det norrøne Týs-dagr.

Søstre og brødre – Gratulerer med dagen! 🙂

Den 17. mai er Norges nasjonaldag. På denne dagen i 1814 ble Norges Grunnlov datert og undertegnet av presidentskapet i Riksforsamlingen på Eidsvoll.

Det som inspirerte dem som møtte opp for å skrive grunnloven, som dannet grunnlaget for utviklingen av folkestyret, var den franske revolusjonen og den franske grunnloven fra 1791, samt den amerikanske uavhengighetserklæringen fra 1776 og amerikanske konstitusjonen fra 1787.

Frihet, likhet, brorskap var budskapet i den franske revolusjonen. Det var radikale, liberale og sosiale verdier som innebar et tidsskifte. Sentrale prinsipper var politisk frihet, ytringsfrihet og maktfordeling. Dette dannet de nye forestillingene om menneskerettigheter.

Hovedprinsippene i Grunnloven bygde stort sett på de samme ideene. Det var en seier for folkesuverenitet, maktfordeling og borgerrettighetene.

Folkesuvereniteten innebar at makten skulle ligge hos folket, som dermed hadde rett til å styre seg selv. Maktfordelingen skulle sikre at maktutøvelsen ble delt på tre uavhengige myndigheter. Dette for å hindre maktkonsentrasjon og maktmisbruk.

Borgerrettighetene skulle sikre borgernes «medfødte og umistelige» rettigheter. Grunnloven slo fast borgernes rett til ytringsfrihet, næringsfrihet og rettssikkerhet, selv om den manglet mye av det vi i dag ser på som selvsagte menneskerettigheter.

Menneskerettighetserklæringen ble vedtatt av De forente nasjoners tredje generalforsamling den 10. desember 1948 ved Palais de Chaillot i Paris.

Noen av de mest grunnleggende menneskerettighetene er retten til mat, klær og husly. Likevel er dette rettigheter ingen land i verden så langt har klart å innfri for alle sine innbyggere.

Menneskerettighetenes artikkel 22 sier at enhver har rett til sosial trygghet og har krav på at de økonomiske, sosiale og kulturelle goder som er uunnværlige for hans verdighet og den frie utvikling av hans personlighet.

Artikkel 25 sier at enhver har rett til en tilstrekkelig levestandard. Alle har rett på liv, frihet og sikkerhet. Alle har rett til bolig, mat, klær, helseomsorg, en arbeidsplass å gå til, frihet til å gi uttrykk for sine meninger og til å leve i samsvar med sin tro.

Borgerlønn kan bli ansett som en menneskerett. Gjennom å tilby alle et inntektsgulv har borgerlønn et enormt potensiale når det kommer til å omfordele våre ressurser.

Borgerlønn kan være den største faktoren når det kommer til å skape ekte økonomisk likeverd for alle og kan føre til et mer likestilt og fredelig samfunn. Innføring av borgerlønn er med andre ord en del av den universelle kampen for likestilling og likeverd.

Borgerlønn innebærer en realisering av menneskerettighetene i praksis og er den mest effektive måten å få gjennomført FNs bærekraftsmål på.

Ved å fjerne fattigdom, og sørge for at alle har mat, vann, klær, sted å bo, utdanning, helse, sosial sikkerhet, rettslig hjelp er borgerlønn en anerkjennelse av verdien og egenverdien til hvert enkelt menneske.

«Med borgerlønnsbevegelsen», skriver Karl Widerquist, leder for BIEN og redaktør for BINews.org, «begynner folk å skjønne at det ikke er noen frihet om man ikke er fri fra fattigdom, og at det ikke er noen frihet fra fattigdom uten betingelsesløs tilgang på livsnødvendigheter.»

Stanislas Jourdan, som er leder av EU initiativet for borgerlønn, beskriver borgerlønnen som en kulturell impuls, som skal utbetales som en menneskerett. Å realisere en slik reform vil kreve at vi ser på arbeid og verdiskaping på en helt ny måte.

I en fremtid med overflod hvor automatisering har fortrengt en stor del av arbeidskraften bør velferdstjenestene være utformet slik at de gir folk frihet, trygghet og verdighet.

Dette for at de skal kunne realisere seg selv i en verden der deres manuelle arbeidskraft ikke lenger er nødvendig. Dette uten å bli tvunget inn i ordninger som ikke fører noen vei.

I et så overveldende rikt samfunn som vårt er arven fra den franske revolusjonen og amerikanske konstitusjonen først og fremst å gi de som trenger det mest hjelp til å oppleve den samme frihet som oss andre.

Tiden er inne for å for noen radikale endringer. Vi trenger å redefinere arbeid og verdiskapning, og sammen skape et bærekraftig samfunn hvor alle er sikret livets nødvendigheter. Vi må redusere gapet mellom fattig og rik, innføre reelt demokrati, tenke økonomi på en ny måte og innføre borgerlønn.

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Explain this …

Posted by Fredsvenn on May 19, 2017

Sjur Cappelen Papazian sitt bilde.

The peoples of ancient Anatolia worshiped, it was said, a kursa, a sacred skin, that was fashioned into a bag and served as as symbol of the deity. The mysterious stone “bags” or “baskets” associated with the Sumerian gods, are also found in Mesoamerica.

In Sumer the annunaki gods (meaning “princely offspring” or “offspring of Anu”, they take their name from the old sky god An/Anu) in one hand carries a purse-size bucket or “hunting bags” of holy water, also known as Kursa, and in the other dabs the air with a fruit that looks like a pine cone (representation of the pineal gland, the spiritual gateway of the human body).

The word structure of Sumerian is more complete than the word structure of the language of pre-Sumerian Ubaid writing (kush, kus ‘skin, leather’ : Hittite kursa-; guza, Old Sumerian *kusa: Semitic *kursiy). All the Anunaki have wings. All are wearing bracelets with a disc. All are carrying a pouch with handle in one hand, and thrusting a pine cone forward with the other.

This sacred sack could be made of ox, sheep, or goat hide. The kursa was filled with objects signifying abundance, including fertility symbols, crops, and all kinds of goods. Some special kursas were covered with copper or bronze appliques, while others were made of cloth.

One of the earliest depictions of Quetzalcoatl, as “The Feathered Serpent,” from the ancient Olmec site of La Venta. The mythological figure of the feathered or plumed serpent is depicted throughout North, Middle, and South America as early as Olmec times (1400 BC.).

The Maya knew him as Kukulkán; the Quiché as Gucumatz; the Inca as Urcaguey. In the Popol Vuh of the Quiché Maya, Gucumatz is “the Creator, the Maker”. The Toltecs portrayed the plumed serpent as Quetzalcóatl, the rival of Tezcatlipoca, both at Tulá (north of Teotihuacán) and at Chichén Itzá, in northern Yucatán—the Aztecs later at Tenochtitlán and other places in the Aztec Empire.

Lost for 2 700 years: Tomb of the Serpent Jaguar Priests Uncovered in Peru
http://www.ancient-origins.net/…/lost-2-700-years-tomb-serp…

Fleece as Hittite Sack – Jason and the Argonauts
http://www.argonauts-book.com/fleece-as-hittite-sack.html

Kursa bag
https://in.pinterest.com/pin/389139224038144773/

The Kursa and the Golden Fleece
https://aratta.wordpress.com/2015/09/20/9863/

Quetzalcoatl and the kursa (purse/curse) bag
https://aratta.wordpress.com/2016/05/14/the-kursa-bag/

Similarities around the world
https://aratta.wordpress.com/…/similarities-around-the-wor…/

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The Ascension of man

Posted by Fredsvenn on May 19, 2017

The Ascension of Jesus (anglicized from the Vulgate Latin Acts 1:9-11 section title: Ascensio Iesu) is the departure of Christ from Earth into the presence of God.

The well-known narrative in Acts 1 takes place 40 days after the Resurrection: Jesus, in the company of the disciples, is taken up in their sight after warning them to remain in Jerusalem until the coming of the Holy Spirit; as he ascends a cloud hides him from their view, and two men in white appear to tell them that he will return “in the same way you have seen him go into heaven.”

The resurrection of Jesus is the Christian religious belief that, after being put to death, Jesus rose again from the dead. It is the central tenet of Christian theology and part of the Nicene Creed: “On the third day he rose again in accordance with the Scriptures”.

In the New Testament, after the Romans crucified Jesus, he was anointed and buried in a new tomb by Joseph of Arimathea but God raised him from the dead and he appeared to many people over a span of forty days before he ascended into heaven, to sit at the right hand of God.

Christians celebrate the resurrection of Jesus on Easter Sunday, two days after Good Friday, the day of his crucifixion. Easter’s date corresponds roughly with Passover, the Jewish observance associated with the Exodus, that is fixed for the night of the full moon near the time of the spring equinox.

In Western Christianity, Eastertide, or the Easter Season, begins on Easter Sunday and lasts seven weeks, ending with the coming of the fiftieth day, Pentecost Sunday. In Eastern Christianity, the season of Pascha begins on Pascha and ends with the coming of the fortieth day, the Feast of the Ascension.

An equinox is the moment in which the plane of Earth’s equator passes through the center of the Sun, which occurs twice each year, around 20 March and 23 September. The subsolar point crosses the equator moving northward at the March equinox and southward at the September equinox.

The equinoxes, along with solstices, are directly related to the seasons of the year. The First Point of Aries is the location of the vernal equinox, and is named for the constellation of Aries. It is one of the two points on the celestial sphere at which the celestial equator meets the ecliptic plane, the other being the First Point of Libra, located exactly 180° from it.

In the northern hemisphere, the vernal equinox (March) conventionally marks the beginning of spring in most cultures, while the autumnal equinox (September) marks the beginning of autumn. In the southern hemisphere, the vernal equinox occurs in September and the autumnal equinox in March.

The point where the Sun crosses the celestial equator northwards is called the First Point of Aries, and is considered to be the celestial “prime meridian” from which right ascensions are calculated. However, due to the precession of the equinoxes, this point is no longer in the constellation Aries, but rather in Pisces. By the year 2600 it will be in Aquarius.

Based on the modern constellation boundaries, the northward equinox passed from Taurus into Aries in the year −1865 (1866 BC), passed into Pisces in the year −67 (68 BC), will pass into Aquarius in the year 2597, and will pass into Capricornus in the year 4312.

The age of Pisces began c. 1 AD and will end c. 2150 AD. With the story of the birth of Christ coinciding with this date, many Christian symbols for Christ use the astrological symbol for Pisces, the fishes.

Ascension myths are myths about certain legendary heroes’ last days of Earth before their departing to Heaven or some similar realm. Stories of Heavenly ascents were fairly common in the time of Jesus, signifying divine approval or the deification of an exceptional man. The ascension of humans or beings into the heavens is a common theme among many mythologies and religions all over the world.

Hercules, son of God Zeus and Princess Alcmene, who was also the wife of the King of Thebes, Amphitryon, was one of the most famous ancient Greek Demi-Gods. Adapa (or Adamu) according to the Sumerian mythology was the son of God Ea (Enki), the patron god of the famous ancient city of Eridu.

Astraea, the celestial virgin, was the last of the immortals to live with humans during the Golden Age, one of the old Greek religion’s five deteriorating Ages of Man. According to Ovid, Astraea abandoned the earth during the Iron Age. Fleeing from the new wickedness of humanity, she ascended to heaven to become the constellation Virgo.

In the Christian tradition, reflected in the major Christian creeds and confessional statements, the ascension is connected with the exaltation of Jesus, meaning that through his ascension Jesus took his seat at the right hand of God: “He ascended into heaven, and is seated at the right hand of God the Father almighty.”

The Feast of the Ascension is celebrated on the 40th day of Easter, always a Thursday; the Orthodox tradition has a different calendar up to a month later than in the Western tradition, and while the Anglican communion continues to observe the feast, most Protestant churches have abandoned it.

The Ascension of Jesus is an important theme in Christian art, the ascending Jesus often shown blessing an earthly group below him to signify his blessing the entire Church.

 

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The birth of Mars and Nerio / Minerva

Posted by Fredsvenn on May 19, 2017

Vulcan was the offspring of Jupiter and Juno. His Greek counterpart is Hephaestus, the god of fire and smithery. Through his identification with the Hephaestus, Vulcan came to be considered as the manufacturer of art, arms, iron, jewelry, and armor for various gods and heroes, including the lightning bolts of Jupiter. He was the son of Jupiter and Juno, and the husband of Maia and Aphrodite (Venus).

In ancient Roman religion and myth, Mars was the god of war and also an agricultural guardian, a combination characteristic of early Rome. He was second in importance only to Jupiter and he was the most prominent of the military gods in the religion of the Roman army.

Most of his festivals were held in March, the month named for him (Latin Martius), and in October, which began the season for military campaigning and ended the season for farming.

Under the influence of Greek culture, Mars was identified with the Greek god Ares, whose myths were reinterpreted in Roman literature and art under the name of Mars.

Ares is the Greek god of war. He is well known as the lover of Aphrodite, the goddess of love, who was married to Hephaestus, god of craftsmanship. Her Roman equivalent is the goddess Venus.

Although Ares was viewed primarily as a destructive and destabilizing force, Mars represented military power as a way to secure peace, and was a father (pater) of the Roman people.

In the mythic genealogy and founding myths of Rome, Mars was the father of Romulus and Remus with Rhea Silvia. His love affair with Venus symbolically reconciled the two different traditions of Rome’s founding; Venus was the divine mother of the hero Aeneas, celebrated as the Trojan refugee who “founded” Rome several generations before Romulus laid out the city walls.

The union of Venus and Mars held greater appeal for poets and philosophers, and the couple were a frequent subject of art. In Greek myth, the adultery of Ares and Aphrodite had been exposed to ridicule when her husband Hephaestus (whose Roman equivalent was Vulcan) caught them in the act by means of a magical snare.

Although not originally part of the Roman tradition, in 217 BC Venus and Mars were presented as a complementary pair in the lectisternium, a public banquet at which images of twelve major gods of the Roman state were presented on couches as if present and participating.

In ancient Roman religion and myth, Nerio was an ancient war goddess and the personification of valor. She was the partner of Mars in ancient cult practices, and was sometimes identified with the goddess Bellona, and occasionally with the goddess Minerva.

Spoils taken from enemies were sometimes dedicated to Nerio by the Romans. Nerio was later supplanted by mythologized deities appropriated and adapted from other religions.

Like Ares who was the son of Zeus and Hera, Mars is usually considered to be the son of Jupiter and Juno. However, in a version of his birth given by Ovid, he was the son of Juno alone.

Jupiter had usurped the mother’s function when he gave birth to Minerva directly from his forehead (or mind); to restore the balance, Juno sought the advice of the goddess Flora on how to do the same.

Flora obtained a magic flower (Latin flos, plural flores, a masculine word) and tested it on a heifer who became fecund at once. She then plucked a flower ritually using her thumb, touched Juno’s belly, and impregnated her. Juno withdrew to Thrace and the shore of Marmara for the birth.

Minerva was the Roman goddess of wisdom and sponsor of arts, trade, and strategy. She was born with weapons from the head of Jupiter. After impregnating the titaness Metis, Jupiter recalled a prophecy that his own child would overthrow him.

Fearing that their child would grow stronger than he and rule the Heavens in his place, Jupiter swallowed Metis whole. The titaness forged weapons and armor for her child while within the father-god, and the constant pounding and ringing gave him a headache. To relieve the pain, Vulcan used a hammer to split Jupiter’s head and, from the cleft, Minerva emerged, whole, adult, and bearing her mother’s weapons and armor.

From the 2nd century BC onwards, the Romans equated her with the Greek goddess Athena. She was the virgin goddess of music, poetry, medicine, wisdom, commerce, weaving, and the crafts. She is often depicted with her sacred creature, an owl usually named as the “owl of Minerva”, which symbolised her association with wisdom and knowledge.

 

 

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