Cradle of Civilization

A Blog about the Birth of Our Civilisation and Development

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  • The Fertile Crescent

    The Fertile Crescent is a term for an old fertile area north, east and west of the Arabian Desert in Southwest Asia. The Mesopotamian valley and the Nile valley fall under this term even though the mountain zone around Mesopotamia is the natural zone for the transition in a historical sense.

    As a result of a number of unique geographical factors the Fertile Crescent have an impressive history of early human agricultural activity and culture. Besides the numerous archaeological sites with remains of skeletons and cultural relics the area is known primarily for its excavation sites linked to agricultural origins and development of the Neolithic era.

    It was here, in the forested mountain slopes of the periphery of this area, that agriculture originated in an ecologically restricted environment. The western zone and areas around the upper Euphrates gave growth to the first known Neolithic farming communities with small, round houses , also referred to as Pre Pottery Neolithic A (PPNA) cultures, which dates to just after 10,000 BC and include areas such as Jericho, the world’s oldest city.

    During the subsequent PPNB from 9000 BC these communities developed into larger villages with farming and animal husbandry as the main source of livelihood, with settlement in the two-story, rectangular house. Man now entered in symbiosis with grain and livestock species, with no opportunity to return to hunter – gatherer societies.

    The area west and north of the plains of the Euphrates and Tigris also saw the emergence of early complex societies in the much later Bronze Age (about 4000 BC). There is evidence of written culture and early state formation in this northern steppe area, although the written formation of the states relatively quickly shifted its center of gravity into the Mesopotamian valley and developed there. The area is therefore in very many writers been named “The Cradle of Civilization.”

    The area has experienced a series of upheavals and new formation of states. When Turkey was formed in the aftermath of the genocide against the Pontic Greeks, Armenians and Assyrians perpetrated by the Young Turks during the First World War it is estimated that two-thirds to three-quarters of all Armenians and Assyrians in the region died, and the Pontic Greeks was pushed to Greece.

    Israel was created out of the Ottoman Empire and the conquering of the Palestinian terretories. The existence of large Arab nation states from the Maghreb to the Levant has since represented a potential threat to Israel which should be neutralised when opportunities arise.

    This line of thinking was at the heart of David Ben Gurion’s policies in the 1950s which sought to exacerbate tensions between Christians and Muslims in the Lebanon for the fruits of acquiring regional influence by the dismembering the country and the possible acquisition of additional territory.

    The Christians are now being systematically targeted for genocide in Syria according to Vatican and other sources with contacts on the ground among the besieged Christian community.

    According to reports by the Vatican’s Fides News Agency collected by the Centre for the Study of Interventionism, the US-backed Free Syrian Army rebels and ever more radical spin-off factions are sacking Christian churches, shooting Christians dead in the street, broadcasting ultimatums that all Christians must be cleansed from the rebel-held villages, and even shooting priests.

    It is now time that the genocide against the Pontic Greeks, Assyrians and Armenians is being recognized, that the Israeli occupation, settlements and violence against the Palestinians stop, and that the various minorities in the area start to live their lifes in peace – without violence and threats from majority populations, or from the West, and then specificially from the US.

    War in the Fertile Crescent
    https://aratta.wordpress.com/2013/11/13/war-in-the-fertile-crescent

    Everyone is free to use the text on this blog as they want. There is no copyright etc. This because knowledge is more important than rules and regulations.

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The mythical number 12

Posted by Sjur Cappelen Papazian on June 12, 2015

12 months of the year, 12 hours of daytime, 12 hours of night time…..

Human Odyssey

The number 12 plays a significant role in the Human Odyssey. Many of the myths and ancient philosophies revolve around this mysterious cipher; for example, there were:

12 Apostles of Christ
12 Constellations of the Zodiac
12 Pillars of light in Hinduism
12 Ordeals of Gilgamesh
12 Argonauts who followed Jason
12 Tribes of Israel
12 Knights of the round Table
12 Halls of Valhalla
12 Gates of Egyptian Heaven
12 Labors of Hercules
12 Olympians
12 Titans

In my short stories I’ll reveal the secrets behind this sacred code. You’ll learn why our ancestors associated it so closely with myth, divinity and the destiny of mankind.

12 in Hinduism:
12 is important after 108 in Hindu Dharma.

1) Important of twelve by Ashtavakra:

(i) Mahabharata, Vana Parva (Book 3), Chapter 134, Verse 18:

Ashtavakra said, Twelve months compose the year; twelve letters go to the composition of a foot of the metre called Jagati; twelve are the minor sacrifices; and twelve, according to the learned, is the number of the Adityas.’

Twelve Adityas from Vishnu Purana are:

Amsa, Aryaman, Bhaga, Dhuti, Mitra, Pusan, Sakra, Savitr, Tvastr, Varuna, Visnu and Vivasvat

(ii) Other features of 12 in Hinduism:

Twelve Rasis based on Solar Months

There are twenty-four hours in a day in all, with twelve hours for a half a day.

Furthermore, the basic units of time (60 seconds, 60 minutes, 24 hours) can all perfectly divide by twelve. Tamil years are numbered 60, a multiple of 12.

Twelve Jyotirlingas are mentioned in Shiva Purana, Satarudra Samhita, Chapter 42, Verses 2 to 4.

Twelve most important deities (Brahma, Vishna, Shiva, Krishna, Rama, Hanuman, Lakshmi, Saraswati, Ganesh, Skanda and Surya

Guru (jupiter) takes 12 years time to go around sun. So it takes 12 years to complete 12 twelve zodiac signs.

Maha (great) Kumbha Mela is celebrated at Prayag once in 12 years.

When Jupiter transits in Simha and Makha star occurring in the month when Sun is in Kumbha as per Nirayana System, “Mamangam” is celebrated. This comes once in 12 years. (Kumbakonam and Thirukoshtiyur etc.).

Dwadasa Nama of Lord Vishnu are Keshava, Narayana, Madhava, Govinda, Vishnu, Madhusudhana, Trivikrama, Vamana, Sridhara, Hrishikesha, Padmanabha and Damodhara),

Dwadasa Nama of Goddess Lakshmi are Sriyee, Amruthotbhavaye, Kamalaye, Chandra sodharye, Vishnu patniye, Vaishnavye, Vararohaye, Hari vallabhaye, Saranghaye, Deva devikaye, Sura sundarye, Sri MahaLakshmiye

Vaisnavite wear 12 pundam. After putting Dvadasa Oordhva pundram (Thiruaman) one should chant 12 names of Perumal (Maha Vishnu) and 12 names of Thayar (Maha Lakshmi)

There are 12 Alwars (Vaisnavite saints) who sang Divya Prabandham.

Pandavas had exile for 12 years and unrecognised exile for 12 months!

Both Hindustani and Carnatic music use 12 Swarasthanas in an octave. (sa, ri, Ri, ga, Ga, ma, Ma, pa, dha, Dha, ni and Ni)

2) 12 in other religions:

The number 12 is very important in many religions, mainly Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, and also found in some older religions and belief systems.

Ancient Greek religion, the Twelve Olympians were the principal gods of the pantheon. The chief Norse god, Odin, had 12 sons. Several sets of twelve cities are identified in history as a dodecapolis, the most familiar being the Etruscan League. In the King Arthur Legend, Arthur is said to have subdued 12 rebel princes and to have won 12 great battles against Saxon invaders.

The importance of 12 in Judaism and Christianity can be found in the Bible. The biblical Jacob had 12 sons, who were the progenitors of the Twelve Tribes of Israel, while the New Testament describes twelve apostles of Jesus; when Judas Iscariot was disgraced, a meeting was held (Acts) to add Matthias to complete the number twelve once more. (Today, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints has a Quorum of the Twelve Apostles.)

The Book of Revelation contains much numerical symbolism, and a lot of the numbers mentioned have 12 as a divisor. 12:1 mentions a woman — interpreted as the people of Israel, the Church or the Virgin Mary — wearing a crown of twelve stars (representing each of the twelve tribes of Israel). Furthermore, there are 12,000 people sealed from each of the twelve tribes of Israel, making a total of 144,000 (which is the square of 12 multiplied by a thousand).

There are 12 days of Christmas. The song Twelve Days of Christmas came from the traditional practice of extending Yuletide celebrations over the twelve days from Christmas day to the eve of Epiphany; the period of thirteen days including Epiphany is sometimes known as Christmastide. Thus Twelfth Night is another name for the twelfth day of Christmas or January 5 (the eve of Epiphany). Similarly, Eastern Orthodoxy observes 12 Great Feasts.

In Shiah Islam, there are twelve Imams, legitimate successors of the prophet Muhammad. These twelve early leaders of Islam are—Ali, Hasan, Husayn, and nine of Husayn’s descendants.

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