Cradle of Civilization

A Blog about the Birth of Our Civilisation and Development

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  • The Fertile Crescent

    The Fertile Crescent is a term for an old fertile area north, east and west of the Arabian Desert in Southwest Asia. The Mesopotamian valley and the Nile valley fall under this term even though the mountain zone around Mesopotamia is the natural zone for the transition in a historical sense.

    As a result of a number of unique geographical factors the Fertile Crescent have an impressive history of early human agricultural activity and culture. Besides the numerous archaeological sites with remains of skeletons and cultural relics the area is known primarily for its excavation sites linked to agricultural origins and development of the Neolithic era.

    It was here, in the forested mountain slopes of the periphery of this area, that agriculture originated in an ecologically restricted environment. The western zone and areas around the upper Euphrates gave growth to the first known Neolithic farming communities with small, round houses , also referred to as Pre Pottery Neolithic A (PPNA) cultures, which dates to just after 10,000 BC and include areas such as Jericho, the world’s oldest city.

    During the subsequent PPNB from 9000 BC these communities developed into larger villages with farming and animal husbandry as the main source of livelihood, with settlement in the two-story, rectangular house. Man now entered in symbiosis with grain and livestock species, with no opportunity to return to hunter – gatherer societies.

    The area west and north of the plains of the Euphrates and Tigris also saw the emergence of early complex societies in the much later Bronze Age (about 4000 BC). There is evidence of written culture and early state formation in this northern steppe area, although the written formation of the states relatively quickly shifted its center of gravity into the Mesopotamian valley and developed there. The area is therefore in very many writers been named “The Cradle of Civilization.”

    The area has experienced a series of upheavals and new formation of states. When Turkey was formed in the aftermath of the genocide against the Pontic Greeks, Armenians and Assyrians perpetrated by the Young Turks during the First World War it is estimated that two-thirds to three-quarters of all Armenians and Assyrians in the region died, and the Pontic Greeks was pushed to Greece.

    Israel was created out of the Ottoman Empire and the conquering of the Palestinian terretories. The existence of large Arab nation states from the Maghreb to the Levant has since represented a potential threat to Israel which should be neutralised when opportunities arise.

    This line of thinking was at the heart of David Ben Gurion’s policies in the 1950s which sought to exacerbate tensions between Christians and Muslims in the Lebanon for the fruits of acquiring regional influence by the dismembering the country and the possible acquisition of additional territory.

    The Christians are now being systematically targeted for genocide in Syria according to Vatican and other sources with contacts on the ground among the besieged Christian community.

    According to reports by the Vatican’s Fides News Agency collected by the Centre for the Study of Interventionism, the US-backed Free Syrian Army rebels and ever more radical spin-off factions are sacking Christian churches, shooting Christians dead in the street, broadcasting ultimatums that all Christians must be cleansed from the rebel-held villages, and even shooting priests.

    It is now time that the genocide against the Pontic Greeks, Assyrians and Armenians is being recognized, that the Israeli occupation, settlements and violence against the Palestinians stop, and that the various minorities in the area start to live their lifes in peace – without violence and threats from majority populations, or from the West, and then specificially from the US.

    War in the Fertile Crescent
    https://aratta.wordpress.com/2013/11/13/war-in-the-fertile-crescent

    Everyone is free to use the text on this blog as they want. There is no copyright etc. This because knowledge is more important than rules and regulations.

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Megaliths of Oceania

Posted by Sjur Cappelen Papazian on June 12, 2015

Human Odyssey

The distinct culture of Polynesians has created some of the most interesting monuments in the world. A true wonder of the world are the Moai sculptures in Easter Island but not less intriguing are the mysterious Tikis statues of Hiva Oa.

The temple of Taputapuatea Marae is an ancient pyramid built on the Leeward Islands, French Polynesia. It is considered as one of the most important sacred complexes in Polynesia. Established around 1000 AD, the marae was a place of learning where priests and navigators from all over the Pacific would gather to offer sacrifices to the gods and share their knowledge of the genealogical origins of the universe, and of deep-ocean navigation.

During the 15th century ce, the Maori of New Zealand constructed a hill fort known as Maungakiekie (One Tree Hill) in Auckland. It is the largest Maori fort ever built. These Earth workers literally carved a fortified complex out of the hill, considered to be the most impressive systems in world. Many of the Maori can also trace their ancestry back to this hill, which is said to possess the spirits of their elders.

The island of Hiva Oa is home to a ceremonial site with houses some of the largest prehistoric statues in French Polynesia, up to 2.6 m high. They are positioned on an ancient monument known as the me’ae, a sacred site arranged for ceremonies and gatherings. The old stone figures were based on gods and legendary figures from the islander’s history.

One of the most interesting fortifications of Polynesia can be found on the small island of Rapa Iti. These pyramid shaped towers were built along the highest peaks of the island, a realm where the island gods were said to reside. It is believed that the depletion of natural resources on the island resulted in warfare, and the inhabitants lived along side these fortified settlements for protection.

One of the most significant petroglyph sites in the world can be found in Rapa Nui (with more than 1,20 valuable carvings). The ‘Orongo’ glyphs were based on the birdman cult, which hosted an annual race to bring the first bird egg from the islet of Motu Nui to ‘Orongo’. The site has numerous petroglyphs, mainly of the birdmen, carved out of large volcanic blocks.

One of the most unusual megalithic monuments in the Pacific is the Ha’amonga ‘a Maui in Tonga. Each stone weighs some 20 tons and is some 6 m high. This massive trilithon was composed of three giant stones – two upright and a lintel uniting them. It was built in the beginning of 13th century, possibly as a royal gateway. Nearby is large upright stone slab – Maka Fa’akinanga – a legendary throne of the king. The local legends of Tonga suggest that this monument was made by a god, because no mortals would be able to handle such giant slabs of stone.

Hale O Pi’ilani Heiau is an ancient temple complex built on the Hawaiian Island of Maui. This huge shrine was used to treat the sick, make offerings to the gods, start rain, stop rain, increase the population, ensure health of the nation, achieve success in distant voyaging, reach peace, and achieve success in war.

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