Cradle of Civilization

A Blog about the Birth of Our Civilisation and Development

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  • The Fertile Crescent

    The Fertile Crescent is a term for an old fertile area north, east and west of the Arabian Desert in Southwest Asia. The Mesopotamian valley and the Nile valley fall under this term even though the mountain zone around Mesopotamia is the natural zone for the transition in a historical sense.

    As a result of a number of unique geographical factors the Fertile Crescent have an impressive history of early human agricultural activity and culture. Besides the numerous archaeological sites with remains of skeletons and cultural relics the area is known primarily for its excavation sites linked to agricultural origins and development of the Neolithic era.

    It was here, in the forested mountain slopes of the periphery of this area, that agriculture originated in an ecologically restricted environment. The western zone and areas around the upper Euphrates gave growth to the first known Neolithic farming communities with small, round houses , also referred to as Pre Pottery Neolithic A (PPNA) cultures, which dates to just after 10,000 BC and include areas such as Jericho, the world’s oldest city.

    During the subsequent PPNB from 9000 BC these communities developed into larger villages with farming and animal husbandry as the main source of livelihood, with settlement in the two-story, rectangular house. Man now entered in symbiosis with grain and livestock species, with no opportunity to return to hunter – gatherer societies.

    The area west and north of the plains of the Euphrates and Tigris also saw the emergence of early complex societies in the much later Bronze Age (about 4000 BC). There is evidence of written culture and early state formation in this northern steppe area, although the written formation of the states relatively quickly shifted its center of gravity into the Mesopotamian valley and developed there. The area is therefore in very many writers been named “The Cradle of Civilization.”

    The area has experienced a series of upheavals and new formation of states. When Turkey was formed in the aftermath of the genocide against the Pontic Greeks, Armenians and Assyrians perpetrated by the Young Turks during the First World War it is estimated that two-thirds to three-quarters of all Armenians and Assyrians in the region died, and the Pontic Greeks was pushed to Greece.

    Israel was created out of the Ottoman Empire and the conquering of the Palestinian terretories. The existence of large Arab nation states from the Maghreb to the Levant has since represented a potential threat to Israel which should be neutralised when opportunities arise.

    This line of thinking was at the heart of David Ben Gurion’s policies in the 1950s which sought to exacerbate tensions between Christians and Muslims in the Lebanon for the fruits of acquiring regional influence by the dismembering the country and the possible acquisition of additional territory.

    The Christians are now being systematically targeted for genocide in Syria according to Vatican and other sources with contacts on the ground among the besieged Christian community.

    According to reports by the Vatican’s Fides News Agency collected by the Centre for the Study of Interventionism, the US-backed Free Syrian Army rebels and ever more radical spin-off factions are sacking Christian churches, shooting Christians dead in the street, broadcasting ultimatums that all Christians must be cleansed from the rebel-held villages, and even shooting priests.

    It is now time that the genocide against the Pontic Greeks, Assyrians and Armenians is being recognized, that the Israeli occupation, settlements and violence against the Palestinians stop, and that the various minorities in the area start to live their lifes in peace – without violence and threats from majority populations, or from the West, and then specificially from the US.

    War in the Fertile Crescent
    https://aratta.wordpress.com/2013/11/13/war-in-the-fertile-crescent

    Everyone is free to use the text on this blog as they want. There is no copyright etc. This because knowledge is more important than rules and regulations.

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Forgotten lands and civilizations

Posted by Sjur Cappelen Papazian on June 12, 2015

Human Odyssey

Many cultures from around the world speak of mythical lands, sunken cities and lost kingdoms that have defied all attempts in being discovered. It’s possible these mysterious civilizations have come and gone, reaching back further in time than history will ever know. There forgotten lands, if discovered today, could shed light on our ancient culture via their ancient structures, cryptic hieroglyphics and forgotten artwork.


Atlantis was a mythical island that was said to have sunk below the ocean. It was first mentioned by Plato at around 350 BC, who wrote about a beautiful island in the Atlantic Ocean that was swallowed by the sea in one day and one night. He wrote two books about the history and culture of this mythical island.

Another sunken city was Ys, which legends claims reached back as far as the prehistoric era where a settlement was built off the coast of Douarnenez, France. The myth states that Gradlon, a King of Cornouaille, built a city within these walls on the request of his daughter Dahut who loved the sea. However, one day a wave as high as a mountain collapsed on Ys, dragging the city to the depths of the ocean.

Lemuria is the name of a lost land located somewhere in the Indian or Pacific Ocean. The island was not based upon legend but rather scientific conjecture. Though Lemuria is no longer considered a valid scientific hypothesis, it has been adopted by occult practitioners who believe a mysterious continent once existed in the ancient world that has now sank beneath the ocean as a result of a cataclysmic event.

Mu is the name of a hypothetical lost continent proposed by 19th-century traveller Augustus Le Plongeon. He claimed that several ancient civilizations, such as those of Egypt and Mesoamerica, were created by refugees from Mu, which he located in the Atlantic Ocean (others suggest the Pacific). Today scientists dismiss the concept of Mu as physically impossible, arguing that a continent can neither sink nor be destroyed in the short period of time required by this premise.

Avalon is a legendary island featured in the Arthurian legends. It first appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth’s 1136 ce “historical” account British history. Within his book he claimed that a mysterious island to the west of England had forged Arthur’s sword Excalibur, and later acted as a place of refuge after Arthur was wounded in the Battle of Camlann. Avalon was has always been associated with mystical practices and supernatural beings.

Agartha is a legendary city that is said to reside under the earth’s surface. It was first mentioned in the west by Alexandre Saint-Yves d’Alveydre who proposed that this hidden civilisation protected of secret knowledge and incredible wealth. Theosophists regard Agartha as a vast complex of caves underneath Tibet, inhabited by supernatural creatures called asuras.

In Tibetan and Buddhist traditions, Shambhala is an ancient kingdom hidden somewhere in Inner Asia. It is mentioned in various ancient texts, the oldest being the Bön scriptures (which vastly predates Buddhism). They all see Shambhala as a pure realm that lies on the edge of physical reality, connecting this world to the next (a gateway between the physical and spiritual realms). Only the most enlightened of beings can enter this paradise, (indeed, Tibetan lamas spend a great deal of their lives in spiritual development before attempting the journey to this mythical realm).

In Greek mythology, Hyperborea was a mythical land situated “beyond the North Wind”. The Greeks believed it was a fertile paradise that lay far to the north of Thrace, ‘where the sun shone twenty-four hours a day’ (which to modern ears suggests the Arctic region). However, it is also possible that Hyperborea was not a physical location at all, for according to the Greek poet Pindar, neither by ship nor on foot would you find the marvellous road to Hyperborea.

Thule was first mentioned in classical European geography as a region that lay far to the north of Britain. Prior to the 19th century, many thought of this northern mystery as hell, surrounded by raging volcanoes in the midst of a frozen wilderness. Conversely, after the 18th century, it came to be known as a land of plenty; where fish were caught abundantly and there was plenty of grazing for the production of meat and butter. The legend of Thule has therefore been appraised as being both heaven and hell. The term ‘Ultima Thule’ denotes any distant place that is located beyond the “borders of the known world”.

When Spanish explorers arrived in South America in the early 16th century they heard rumours of a lost city called El Dorado which was filled with gold. Local folklore said that every time a new ruler was appointed in this city, gold and precious jewels were thrown into a lake called Guativita. This lake was found it 1545, by explorers who managed to lower its level enough to find hundred of pieces of gold along the lake’s edge. However, attempts to drain the lake further have remained unsuccessful, and the city of gold remains lost.

Paititi is a legendary Inca lost city which was the equivalent of a western utopia. It was said to be abundant with food and mineral wealth. Folklore places this forgotten city somewhere within the remote rain forests of Peru, northern Bolivia or southwest Brazil. The Paititi legend revolves around the story of the culture-hero Inkarri, who, after he had founded Q’ero and Cusco, retreated toward the jungles of Pantiacolla to live out the rest of his days in his refuge city of Paititi.

Brasil is a phantom island which is said to lie west of Ireland in the Atlantic Ocean. It is described as being cloaked in a perpetual mist, except for one day every seven years, where its incredible beauty became visible to the naked eye. Expeditions left Bristol in 1480 and 1481 to search for the island; but nothing was found.

Then, in 1674, Captain John Nisbet claimed to have found the island when on a journey to Ireland. He described strangeblack rodents and a magician who lived in a stone castle. A follow-up expedition by captain Alexander Johnson also found Brasil, confirming the same findings. But thereafter, Brasil reverted to its elusive self. Only a few sightings have been made since.

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