Cradle of Civilization

A Blog about the Birth of Our Civilisation and Development

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  • The Fertile Crescent

    The Fertile Crescent is a term for an old fertile area north, east and west of the Arabian Desert in Southwest Asia. The Mesopotamian valley and the Nile valley fall under this term even though the mountain zone around Mesopotamia is the natural zone for the transition in a historical sense.

    As a result of a number of unique geographical factors the Fertile Crescent have an impressive history of early human agricultural activity and culture. Besides the numerous archaeological sites with remains of skeletons and cultural relics the area is known primarily for its excavation sites linked to agricultural origins and development of the Neolithic era.

    It was here, in the forested mountain slopes of the periphery of this area, that agriculture originated in an ecologically restricted environment. The western zone and areas around the upper Euphrates gave growth to the first known Neolithic farming communities with small, round houses , also referred to as Pre Pottery Neolithic A (PPNA) cultures, which dates to just after 10,000 BC and include areas such as Jericho, the world’s oldest city.

    During the subsequent PPNB from 9000 BC these communities developed into larger villages with farming and animal husbandry as the main source of livelihood, with settlement in the two-story, rectangular house. Man now entered in symbiosis with grain and livestock species, with no opportunity to return to hunter – gatherer societies.

    The area west and north of the plains of the Euphrates and Tigris also saw the emergence of early complex societies in the much later Bronze Age (about 4000 BC). There is evidence of written culture and early state formation in this northern steppe area, although the written formation of the states relatively quickly shifted its center of gravity into the Mesopotamian valley and developed there. The area is therefore in very many writers been named “The Cradle of Civilization.”

    The area has experienced a series of upheavals and new formation of states. When Turkey was formed in the aftermath of the genocide against the Pontic Greeks, Armenians and Assyrians perpetrated by the Young Turks during the First World War it is estimated that two-thirds to three-quarters of all Armenians and Assyrians in the region died, and the Pontic Greeks was pushed to Greece.

    Israel was created out of the Ottoman Empire and the conquering of the Palestinian terretories. The existence of large Arab nation states from the Maghreb to the Levant has since represented a potential threat to Israel which should be neutralised when opportunities arise.

    This line of thinking was at the heart of David Ben Gurion’s policies in the 1950s which sought to exacerbate tensions between Christians and Muslims in the Lebanon for the fruits of acquiring regional influence by the dismembering the country and the possible acquisition of additional territory.

    The Christians are now being systematically targeted for genocide in Syria according to Vatican and other sources with contacts on the ground among the besieged Christian community.

    According to reports by the Vatican’s Fides News Agency collected by the Centre for the Study of Interventionism, the US-backed Free Syrian Army rebels and ever more radical spin-off factions are sacking Christian churches, shooting Christians dead in the street, broadcasting ultimatums that all Christians must be cleansed from the rebel-held villages, and even shooting priests.

    It is now time that the genocide against the Pontic Greeks, Assyrians and Armenians is being recognized, that the Israeli occupation, settlements and violence against the Palestinians stop, and that the various minorities in the area start to live their lifes in peace – without violence and threats from majority populations, or from the West, and then specificially from the US.

    War in the Fertile Crescent

    Everyone is free to use the text on this blog as they want. There is no copyright etc. This because knowledge is more important than rules and regulations.

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Archive for February, 2015

Assyria and Ashur

Posted by Sjur Cappelen Papazian on February 27, 2015

The children of Shem were Elam (Elamites), Asshur (Assyria), Arphaxad, Lud (Luvians), and Aram (Arameans), in addition to daughters.

Aššur (Akkadian) (English | Ashur/Assyria, Assyrian / Aššur; Assyrian Neo-Aramaic / Ātûr ; Hebrew: אַשּׁוּר‎ / Aššûr; Arabic: آشور‎ / ALA-LC: Āshūr; Kurdish: Asûr), is a remnant city of the last Ashurite Kingdom.

Middle English, from Latin Assyria, from Greek Assyria, short for Assyria ge “the Assyrian land,” from fem. of Assyrios “pertaining to Assyria,” from Akkadian Ashshur, name of the chief city of the kingdom and also of a god, probably from Assyrian sar “prince.”

Various theories have been advanced as to the etymological connections between the two terms Syria and Assyria. Some scholars suggest that the term Assyria included a definite article, similar to the function of the Arabic language “Al-“.

Theodor Nöldeke in 1881 gave philological support to the assumption that Syria and Assyria have the same etymology, a suggestion going back to John Selden (1617) rooted in his own Hebrew tradition about the descent of Assyrians from Jokshan.

Majority and mainstream current academic opinion strongly favours that Syria originates from Assyria. A Hieroglyphic Luwian and Phoenician bilingual monumental inscription found in Çineköy (the Çineköy inscription) belonging to Urikki, vassal king of Que (i.e. Cilicia), dating to the eighth century BC, reference is made to the relationship between his kingdom and his Assyrian overlords.

Various theories have been advanced as to the etymological connections between the two terms Syria and Assyria. Some scholars suggest that the term Assyria included a definite article, similar to the function of the Arabic language “Al-“.

Theodor Nöldeke in 1881 gave philological support to the assumption that Syria and Assyria have the same etymology, a suggestion going back to John Selden (1617) rooted in his own Hebrew tradition about the descent of Assyrians from Jokshan.

Majority and mainstream current academic opinion strongly favours that Syria originates from Assyria. A Hieroglyphic Luwian and Phoenician bilingual monumental inscription found in Çineköy, Turkey, (the Çineköy inscription) belonging to Urikki, vassal king of Que (i.e. Cilicia), dating to the eighth century BC, reference is made to the relationship between his kingdom and his Assyrian overlords.

The Sumerian mythological epic Enmerkar and the Lord of Aratta lists the countries where the “languages are confused” as Subartu, Hamazi, Sumer, Uri-ki (Akkad), and the Martu land (the Amorites).

The Luwian inscription reads su-ra/i whereas the Phoenician translation reads ʾšr, i.e. ašur, which according to Robert Rollinger (2006) and Richard Nelson Frye “settles the problem once and for all”.

Various alternatives have been suggested, including derivation from Subartu (a term which most modern scholars in fact accept is itself an early name for Assyria, and which was located in northern Mesopotamia), the Hurrian toponym Śu-ri, or Ṣūr (the Phoenician name of Tyre).

Syria is known as Ḫrw (Ḫuru, referring to the Hurrian occupants prior to the Aramaean invasion) in the Amarna Period Egypt, and as אֲרָם, ʾĂrām in Biblical Hebrew.

A. Tvedtnes had suggested that the Greek Suria is loaned from Coptic, and due to a regular Coptic development of Ḫrw to *Šuri. In this case, the name would directly derive from that of the Hurrians. Tvedtnes’ explanation was rejected as highly unlikely by Frye in 1992.

The Sumerian mythological epic Enmerkar and the Lord of Aratta lists the countries where the “languages are confused” as Subartu, Hamazi, Sumer, Uri-ki (Akkad), and the Martu land (the Amorites).

The land of Subartu (Akkadian Šubartum/Subartum/ina Šú-ba-ri, Assyrian mât Šubarri) or Subar (Sumerian Su-bir4/Subar/Šubur) is mentioned in Bronze Age literature. The name also appears as Subari in the Amarna letters, and, in the form Šbr, in Ugarit, and came to be known as the Hurrians or Subarians and their country was known as Subir, Subartu or Shubar.

Eannatum of Lagash was said to have smitten Subartu or Shubur, and it was listed as a province of the empire of Lugal-Anne-Mundu; in a later era Sargon of Akkad campaigned against Subar, and his grandson Naram-Sin listed Subar along with Armani (Armenians) among the lands under his control.

Shupria (Shubria) or Arme-Shupria (Akkadian: Armani-Subartu from the 3rd millennium BC) was a Hurrian-speaking kingdom, known from Assyrian sources beginning in the 13th century BC, located in what was later to become the Armenian Highland, to the southwest of Lake Van, bordering on Ararat proper. Scholars have linked the district in the area called Arme or Armani, to the name Armenia.

The Luwian inscription reads su-ra/i whereas the Phoenician translation reads ʾšr, i.e. ašur, which according to Robert Rollinger (2006) and Richard Nelson Frye “settles the problem once and for all”.

Various alternatives have been suggested, including derivation from Subartu (a term which most modern scholars in fact accept is itself an early name for Assyria, and which was located in northern Mesopotamia), the Hurrian toponym Śu-ri, or Ṣūr (the Phoenician name of Tyre).

Syria is known as Ḫrw (Ḫuru, referring to the Hurrian (Armenian) occupants prior to the Aramaean invasion) in the Amarna Period Egypt, and as אֲרָם, ʾĂrām in Biblical Hebrew.

J. A. Tvedtnes had suggested that the Greek Suria is loaned from Coptic, and due to a regular Coptic development of Ḫrw to *Šuri. In this case, the name would directly derive from that of the Hurrians. Tvedtnes’ explanation was rejected as highly unlikely by Frye in 1992.

Archaeology reveals the site of the city was occupied by the middle of the third millennium BC. This was still the Sumerian period, before the Assyrian kingdom emerged in the 23rd to 21st century BC.

The remains of the city are situated on the western bank of the river Tigris, north of the confluence with the tributary Little Zab river, in modern-day Iraq, more precisely in the Al-Shirqat District (a small panhandle of the Salah al-Din Governorate).

The oldest remains of the city were discovered in the foundations of the Ishtar temple, as well as at the Old Palace. In the following Old Akkadian period, the city was ruled by kings from Akkad.

During the “Sumerian Renaissance”, the city was ruled by a Sumerian governor. By the time the Neo-Sumerian Ur-III dynasty collapsed at the hands of the Elamites in ca. the 21st century BC.

An Assyrian king named Ushpia who reigned in ca. the 21st century BC is credited with dedicating the first temple of the god Assur (also, Assur, Aššur; written A-šur, also Aš-šùr) in his home city. The first fortifications began in this period.

It is highly likely that the city and indeed the Assyrian nation and people, were named in honour of this deity. Aššur is the name of the city, of the land ruled by the city, and of its tutelary deity.

Some scholars have claimed that Ashur was represented as the solar disc that appears frequently in Assyrian iconography. The symbols of Ashur include a winged disc with horns, enclosing four circles revolving round a middle circle; rippling rays fall down from either side of the disc; a circle or wheel, suspended from wings, and enclosing a warrior drawing his bow to discharge an arrow; the same circle; the warrior’s bow, however, is carried in his left hand, while the right hand is uplifted as if to bless his worshipers.

An Assyrian standard, which probably represented the world column, has the disc mounted on a bull’s head with horns. The upper part of the disc is occupied by a warrior, whose head, part of his bow, and the point of his arrow protrude from the circle. The rippling water rays are V-shaped, and two bulls, treading river-like rays, occupy the divisions thus formed.

There are also two heads—a lion’s and a man’s—with gaping mouths, which may symbolize tempests, the destroying power of the sun, or the sources of the Tigris and Euphrates.

Jastrow regards the winged disc as “the purer and more genuine symbol of Ashur as a solar deity”. He calls it “a sun disc with protruding rays”, and says: “To this symbol the warrior with the bow and arrow was added—a despiritualization that reflects the martial spirit of the Assyrian empire”.

Shivini or Artinis (the present form of the name is Artin, meaning “sun rising” or to “awake”, and it persists in Armenian names to this day) was a solar god in the mythology of the Urartu. He is a counterpart to the Assyrian god Assur.

Shivini is generally considered a good god, like that of the Egyptian solar god, Aten, and unlike the solar god of the Assyrians, Ashur to whom sometimes human sacrifices were made. He was depicted as a man on his knees, holding up a solar disc.

In the city of Assur, the first great temples to the city god Assur and the weather god Adad were erected. Ashur is an East Semitic god, and the head of the Assyrian pantheon in Mesopotamian religion, worshipped mainly in the northern half of Mesopotamia, and parts of north-east Syria and south east Asia Minor which constituted old Assyria. He may have had a solar iconography.

Ashur the son of Shem is sometimes compared with the figure of the deity Ashur, for whom a temple was dedicated in the early capital city of Aššur — traditionally by an early Assyrian king named Ushpia in ca. the 21st century BC.

Ushpia was an early Assyrian king who ruled circa 2030 BC, according to the Assyrian King List (AKL). Like most other of the “kings who lived in tents”, his name is not regarded as Semitic, but more likely Hurrian (Armenian).

Ushpia is also alleged to have founded the temple of Ashur at the city of Assur, according to the much later inscriptions of Shalmaneser I (13th century BC) and Esarhaddon (8th century BC). However, he has yet to be confirmed by contemporary artifacts and nothing else of him is known. He was succeeded on the AKL by Apiashal.

In around 2000 BC, Puzur-Ashur I founded a new dynasty, and his successors such as Ilushuma, Erishum I and Sargon I left inscriptions regarding the building of temples to Ashur, Adad and Ishtar in the city.

Assur developed rapidly into a centre for trade, and trade routes led from the city to Anatolia, where merchants from Assur established trading colonies. These Assyrian colonies in Asia Minor were called karum, and traded mostly with tin and wool (see Kültepe).

Ashur did not originally have a family, but as the cult came under southern Mesopotamian influence, he came to be regarded as the Assyrian equivalent of Enlil, the chief god of Nippur, which was the most important god of the southern pantheon from the early 3rd millennium BC until Hammurabi founded an empire based in Babylon in the mid-18th century BC, after which Marduk replaced Enlil as the chief god in the south.

In the north, Ashur absorbed Enlil’s wife Ninlil (as the Assyrian goddess Mullissu) and his sons Ninurta and Zababa – this process began around the 14th century BC and continued down to the 7th century.

During the various periods of Assyrian conquest, such as the Assyrian Empire of Shamshi-Adad I (1813-1750 BC), Middle Assyrian Empire (1391-1056 BC) and Neo-Assyrian Empire (911-605 BC), the Assyrians did not require conquered peoples to take up the worship of Ashur; instead, Assyrian imperial propaganda declared that the conquered peoples had been abandoned by their gods.

When Assyria conquered Babylon in the Sargonid period (8th-7th centuries BC), Assyrian scribes began to write the name of Ashur with the cuneiform signs AN.SHAR, literally “whole heaven” in Akkadian, the language of Assyria and Babylonia.

The intention seems to have been to put Ashur at the head of the Babylonian pantheon, where Anshar and his counterpart Kishar (“whole earth”) preceded even Enlil and Ninlil.

Thus in the Sargonid version of the Enuma Elish, the Babylonian national creation myth, Marduk, the chief god of Babylon, does not appear, and instead it is Ashur, as Anshar, who slays Tiamat the chaos-monster and creates the world of humankind.

At a late date it appears in Assyrian literature in the forms An-sar, An-sar (ki), which form was presumably read Assur. The name of the deity is written A-šur or Aš-sùr, and in Neo-assyrian often shortened to Aš.

In the Creation tablet, the heavens personified collectively were indicated by this term An-sar, “host of heaven,” in contradistinction to the earth, Ki-sar, “host of earth.”

In view of this fact, it seems highly probable that the late writing An-sar for Assur was a more or less conscious attempt on the part of the Assyrian scribes to identify the peculiarly Assyrian deity Asur with the Creation deity An-sar.

On the other hand, there is an epithet Asir or Ashir (“overseer”) applied to several gods and particularly to the deity Asur, a fact which introduced a third element of confusion into the discussion of the name Assur.

It is probable then that there is a triple popular etymology in the various forms of writing the name Assur; viz. A-usar, An-sar and the stem asdru.

Ashur, together with a number of other Mesopotamian gods, continued to be worshipped by Assyrians long after the fall of Assyria, with temples being erected in his honour in Assyria (Athura/Assuristan) until the 3rd and 4th centuries CE, but by this time most Assyrians had adopted East Syrian Rite Christianity.

The city of Ashur, named in honour of the deity, was inhabited until the 14th century CE, when a massacre of Assyrian Christians by Tamurlane left it finally emptied. Ashur is still a common given and family name amongst Assyrians to this day.

The site was put on UNESCO’s List of World Heritage in Danger in 2003, at which time the site was threatened by a looming large-scale dam project that would have submerged the ancient archaeological site. The dam project was put on hold shortly after the 2003 invasion of Iraq.

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Sargon and Akkad

Posted by Sjur Cappelen Papazian on February 27, 2015



Akkad (also spelled Akkade or Agade), meaning “Crown of Fire” in allusion to Ishtar, “the brilliant goddess”, whose cult was observed from very early times in Agade, was the capital of the Akkadian Empire, which was the dominant political force in Mesopotamia at the end of the third millennium BCE.

The etymology and meaning of Akkad (writtenèKI or URIKI) are unknown. The form Agade appears in Sumerian, for example in the Sumerian King List; the later Assyro-Babylonian form Akkadû (“of or belonging to Akkad”) was likely derived from this. The etymology of a-ga-dè is unclear but not of Akkadian origin. Sumerian, Hurrian and Lullubean etymologies have been proposed instead.

The non-Akkadian origin of the city’s name suggests that the site may have already been occupied in pre-Sargonic times, as also suggested by the mentioning of the city in one pre-Sargonic year-name.

Centuries later, the neo-Babylonian king Nabonidus mentioned in his archaeological records that Ishtar’s worship in Agade was later superseded by that of the goddess Anunit, whose shrine was at Sippar—suggesting proximity of Sippar and Agade. Ishtar and Ilaba were later worshipped at Sippar in the Old Babylonian period, possibly because Akkad itself had been destroyed by that time.

Ishtar (Transliteration: DIŠTAR; Akkadian: INANNA), who was called ‘Aštar-annunîtum or ‘Warlike Ishtar’ and who was identified with the Sumerian goddess Inanna, is the East Semitic Akkadian, Assyrian and Babylonian goddess of fertility, love, war, and sex. She is the counterpart to the Sumerian Inanna, and is the cognate for the Northwest Semitic Aramean goddess Astarte.

Like Ishtar, the Greek Aphrodite and the Aramean Northwestern Semitic Astarte were love goddesses. Donald A. Mackenzie, an early popularizer of mythology, draws a parallel between the love goddess Aphrodite and her “dying god” lover Adonis on one hand, and the love goddess Ishtar and her “dying god” lover Tammuz on the other.

Joseph Campbell, a more recent scholar of comparative mythology, equates Ishtar, Inanna, and Aphrodite, and he draws a parallel between the Egyptian goddess Isis who nurses Horus, and the Assyrian-Babylonian goddess Ishtar who nurses the god Tammuz.

The first known mention of the city-state of Akkad is in an inscription of Enshakushanna of Uruk, where he claims to have defeated Agade—indicating that it was in existence well before the days of Sargon of Akkad, whom the Sumerian King List claims to have built it.

The precise archaeological site of the city-state of Akkad has not yet been found. Despite numerous searches, the city has never been found. One theory holds that Agade was situated opposite Sippar on the left bank of the Euphrates, and was perhaps the oldest part of the city of Sippar.

Another theory is that the ruins of Akkad are to be found beneath modern Baghdad. Reputedly it was destroyed by invading Gutians with the fall of the Akkadian Empire.

Sargon of Akkad

Sargon of Akkad, also known as Sargon the Great “the Great King” (Akkadian Šarru-kīnu, meaning “the true king” or “the king is legitimate”), was a Semitic Akkadian emperor famous for his conquest of the Sumerian city-states in the 24th and 23rd centuries BC.

The founder of the Dynasty of Akkad, Sargon reigned during the penultimate quarter of the third millennium BC. Cuneiform sources agree that he was cup-bearer (official in charge of wine) of king Ur-Zababa of Kish, and some later historians have speculated that he killed the king and usurped his throne before embarking on the quest to conquer Mesopotamia.

The king Sargon has often been cited as the first ruler of a combined empire of Akkad and Sumer, although more recently discovered data suggests there had been Sumerian expansions under previous kings, including Lugal-Anne-Mundu of Adab, Eannatum of Lagash, and Lugal-Zage-Si.

King Sargon of Agade (c. 2550 B.C.) was born of a lowly mother in Azupira-nu. His father was unknown. He like Moses was set adrift by his mother in a basket of bulrushes on the waters of the Euphrates, he was discovered by Akki the husbandman (the irrigator), whom he brought up to serve as gardener in the palace of Kish.

The goddess Ishtar favored the youth, and he was promoted to the post of cup-bearer. Thus aspiring the throne he became, at last, king and emperor, renowned as the living god. Sargon of Agade (his new capital) was the destroyer of the ancient cities of the Sumerians, from whom his own people had derived their civilization.

Similarities between the Neo-Assyrian Sargon Birth Legend and other infant birth exposures in ancient literature, including Moses, Karna, and Oedipus, were noted by Otto Rank in 1909.

Theta Scorpii (θ Sco, θ Scorpii) is a star in the southern zodiac constellation of Scorpius. It has the traditional name Sargas, of Sumerian origin. In Greek Mythology the myths associated with Scorpio almost invariably also contain a reference to Orion.

According to one of these myths it is written that Orion boasted to goddess Artemis and her mother, Leto, that he would kill every animal on the earth. Although Artemis was known to be a hunter herself she offered protection to all creatures. Artemis and her mother Leto sent a scorpion to deal with Orion. The pair battled and the scorpion killed Orion.

However, the contest was apparently a lively one that caught the attention of the king of the gods Zeus, who later raised the scorpion to heaven and afterwards, at the request of Artemis, did the same for Orion to serve as a reminder for mortals to curb their excessive pride.

There is also a version that Orion was better than the goddess Artemis but said that Artemis was better than he and so Artemis took a liking to Orion. The god Apollo, Artemis’s twin brother, grew angry and sent a scorpion to attack Orion. After Orion was killed, Artemis asked Zeus to put Orion up in the sky. So every winter Orion hunts in the sky, but every summer he flees as the constellation of the scorpion comes.

The legend was also studied in detail by Brian Lewis, and compared with a number of different examples of the infant birth exposure motif found in European and Asian folk tales. He discusses a possible archetype form, giving particular attention to the Sargon legend and the account of the birth of Moses.

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The mighty hunter

Posted by Sjur Cappelen Papazian on February 27, 2015

Haik – Armenia


Nimrud is the later Arab name for the ancient Assyrian city of Kalhu located south of Mosul on the river Tigris in northern Mesopotamia. Archeologists called the city Nimrud after the Biblical Nimrod, a legendary hunting hero (cf. Genesis 10:11-12, Micah 5:5, and 1Chronicles 1:10). The city was known as Calah (Kalakh) in the Bible.

The city covered an area of 360 hectares (890 acres). The ruins of the city are found within one kilometer of the modern-day Assyrian village of Noomanea in Nineveh Province, Iraq. This is some 30 kilometres (19 mi) southeast of Mosul.

The Assyrian king Shalmaneser I (1274 BC – 1245 BC) built Kalhu (Calah/Nimrud) during the Middle Assyrian Empire. However, the ancient city of Ashur remained the capital of Assyria, as it had been since circa 3500 BC.

A number of historians, such as Julian Jaynes, believe that the Biblical figure Nimrod (of whom the far later Arab name for the city was derived) was inspired by the deeds of the real king of Assyria Tukulti-Ninurta I (1244-1207 BC), the son of Shalmaneser I, and a powerful conqueror. Others believe the name derived from the Assyrian god Ninurta, who had a major cultic centre at Kalhu /Nimrud.

The city gained fame when king Ashurnasirpal II of the Neo Assyrian Empire (883 BC – 859 BC) made it his capital at the expense of Ashur. He built a large palace and temples in the city that had fallen into a degree of disrepair during the Dark Ages of the mid 11th to mid 10th centuries BC.

Ḫaldi (also known as Khaldi or Hayk) was one of the three chief deities of Ararat (Urartu). His shrine was at Ardini. The other two chief deities were Theispas of Kumenu, and Shivini of Tushpa.

Of all the gods of Ararat (Urartu) pantheon, the most inscriptions are dedicated to him. His wife was the goddess Arubani. He is portrayed as a man with or without a beard, standing on a lion.

Khaldi was a warrior god whom the kings of Urartu would pray to for victories in battle. The temples dedicated to Khaldi were adorned with weapons, such as swords, spears, bow and arrows and shields hung off the walls and were sometimes known as ‘the house of weapons’.

Nimrod, king of Shinar, was, according to the Book of Genesis and Books of Chronicles, the son of Cush and great-grandson of Noah. He is depicted in the Bible as a mighty in the earth and a mighty hunter. Extra-biblical traditions associating him with the Tower of Babel led to his reputation as a king who was rebellious against God.

Since Accad (Babylonian Akkad), was destroyed and lost with the destruction of its Empire in the period 2200–2154 BCE (long chronology), the stories mentioning Nimrod seem to recall the late Early Bronze Age.

The association with Erech (Babylonian Uruk), a city that lost its prime importance around 2,000 BCE as a result of struggles between Isin, Larsa and Elam, also attests the early provenance of the stories of Nimrod.

Several Mesopotamian ruins were given Nimrod’s name by 8th-century Arabs, including the ruins of the Assyrian city of Kalhu (the biblical Calah), built by Shalmaneser I (1274–1244 BC). A number of attempts to connect him with historical figures have been made.

The first mention of Nimrod is in the Table of Nations. He is described as the son of Cush, grandson of Ham, and great-grandson of Noah; and as “mighty in the earth” and “a mighty hunter before the Lord”. This is repeated in the First Book of Chronicles 1:10, and the “Land of Nimrod” used as a synonym for Assyria or Mesopotamia, is mentioned in the Book of Micah 5:6:

And they shall waste the land of Assyria with the sword, and the land of Nimrod in the entrances thereof: thus shall he deliver us from the Assyrian, when he cometh into our land, and when he treadeth within our borders.

Genesis says that the “beginning of his kingdom” (reshit memelketo) was the towns of “Babel, Erech, Akkad and Calneh in the land of Shinar” (Mesopotamia)—understood variously to imply that he either founded these cities, ruled over them, or both.

Owing to an ambiguity in the original Hebrew text, it is unclear whether it is he or Asshur who additionally built Nineveh, Resen, Rehoboth-Ir and Calah (both interpretations are reflected in various English versions). (Genesis 10:8–12; 1 Chronicles 1:10, Micah 5:6).

Sir Walter Raleigh devoted several pages in his History of the World (c. 1616) to reciting past scholarship regarding the question of whether it had been Nimrod or Ashur who built the cities in Assyria. In Armenian legend, the ancestor of the Armenian people, Hayk, defeated Nimrod (sometimes equated with Bel) in a battle near Lake Van.

Nemrut or Nemrud is a 2,134 m (7,001 ft) high mountain in southeastern Turkey, notable for the summit where a number of large statues are erected around what is assumed to be a royal tomb from the 1st century BC. It is referred as the pantheon of the Armenian gods.

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IS ødelegger antikke kunstskatter i Mosul

Posted by Sjur Cappelen Papazian on February 26, 2015

Extremists used sledgehammers and power drills to smash ancient artifacts at a museum in the northern city of Mosul 

Militant uses a power tool to destroy a winged-bull Assyrian protective deity at the Ninevah Museum in Mosul, Iraq. The statue dates back to the 9th century B.C.

A man shown in the video said the items were being destroyed because they promoted idolatry

Large segments of the priceless winged-bull Assyrian protective deity are hurled to the ground as militants smash it to pieces

The Islamic State group releases a video of ancient artifacts, some dating back to the 9th century BC, being smashed up with sledgehammers in Mosul.

Assyrere er et etnisk folk som har sin opprinnelse i oldtidens Mesopotamia (senere Assyria i samme område), det vil si dagens Irak, vestlige Iran, Syria og sørøstlige Tyrkia.

Som folkegruppe sporer assyrerne sin slekt tilbake til de gamle sumerisk-akkadiske i Mesopotamia for rundt 4000–3500 f.Kr., og i særdeleshet til de nordlige regionen av de akkadiske områdene som ble kjent som Assyria en gang rundt 2300 f.Kr.

Den assyriske nasjon eksisterte som en uavhengig stat og ofte som det mektigste riket i østlige Asia fra 2300 f.Kr. og fram til slutten av 600-tallet f.Kr. Assyria forble en politisk enhet selv etter at det falt sammen og ble styrt som en okkupert provins under ulike andre riker fra slutten av 600-tallet f.Kr. og fram til midten av 600-tallet e.Kr. da det ble oppløst.

Det assyriske folk har gradvis blitt en minoritet i sitt hjemland siden den gang. På grunn av krig og forfølgelser har hundretusener av assyrere opp gjennom historien flyktet til Kaukasus, Libanon, Syria, Europa, USA og Australia og andre steder.

I nyeste tid har Irak-krigen fortrengt de assyriske lokalsamfunn da dets folk har møtt etnisk og religiøs forfølgelse ved islamister og arabisk og kurdisk nasjonalisme. Vesten har ikke gjort noen som helst ting for å stanse dette, snarere tvert om.

Av de rundt en millioner eller flere irakere som er rapportert av Forente nasjoner for å ha flyktet fra Irak siden okkupasjonen er bortimot 40 prosent assyrere, skjønt assyrere utgjorde kun rundt 3 prosent av den tidligere irakiske befolkningen fra før krigen. I henhold til en rapport fra 2013 er det beregnet at kun 300 000 assyrere er igjen i Irak.

Lamassu (kileskrift: AN.KAL, sumerisk: dLamma, akkadisk: Lamassu) er en beskyttende demon innen mesopotamisk mytologi. Den avbildes ofte med en okse- eller løvekropp, ørnevinger og menneskehode. I visse skrifter fremstilles den som en kvinnelig guddom. Et mindre vanlig navn er shedu, som tilsvarer den mannlige Lamassu.

Lamassu er ofte avbildet i mesopotamisk kunst, iblant med vinger. Lamassu og shedu var beskyttende ånder i folks hjem. De var innrissede på leirtavler som ble gjemt under husets terskel.

Senere under den babylonske periode ble Lamassu kongenes beskyttere og var alltid plassert ved inngangene til palassene, ofte som par. Ved byers innganger var de skulpterte i kolossal størrelse, og plasserte som par, et på hver side av byporten, hver og en vendt mot en av de fire verdenshjørner.

Perserne overtok Lamassu-statuene og annen billedkunst fra assyrerne som hadde påvirket perserne kulturelt, religiøst og lingvistisk, da perserne var umåtelig assyrianiserte, særlig under akemeniderne.

En ny video som IS har publisert viser en gruppe menn som velter skulpturer ned fra støttene de står på og deretter knuser dem med slegge. De store ødeleggelsene fant sted i byen Mosul, nord i Irak. Mosul er Iraks nest største by, og en av dem terrororganisasjonen har tatt over i sin offensiv i Irak og Syria.

Et annet klipp viser IS-medlemmer som bruker pressluftbor for å hogge ansiktet av en stor assyrisk lamassu på et arkeologisk utgravingssted i Mosul, som den sunniislamske ekstremistgruppa tok kontroll over i fjor sommer.

Veltingen og knusingen av statuene fører seg inn i rekken av ødeleggelser som angivelig IS står bak. Tidligere denne uken bombet de et bibliotek i Mosul. I følge AP skal IS ha solgt verdifulle kunstgjenstander på det svarte markedet for å finansiere deres blodige handlinger i regionen.

– IS ødela antikke kunstskatter i Mosul

ISIS thugs take a hammer to civilisation

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Ny forskning: På vei mot jordas sjette masseutryddelse

Posted by Sjur Cappelen Papazian on February 26, 2015

Gaupa er en truet art i villmarka vår!!

Alikevel tillater våre myndigheter jakt på dette flotte dyret.

“No one can serve two masters. Either you will hate the one and love the other, or you will be devoted to the one and despise the other. You cannot serve both God and money.”

The globalization of  Capitalism

Around the world ‘development’ is robbing tribal people of their land, self-sufficiency and pride and leaving them with nothing. Watch this short, satirical film, written by Oren Ginzburg and narrated by actor and comedian David Mitchell, which tells the story of how tribal peoples are being destroyed in the name of ‘development’.


The New World Order:

They control the world’s governments; THEY rule over all of us from the top of the pyramid. While WE suffer at the bottom. Right?

Today we blow open the truth about the NWO in order to shed light on this widespread conspiracy which has frequently been invoked to explain the state of our world. Join intrepid host Robert Foster as he takes control of the lever of critical inquiry, alongside special guests Russell Brand, conspiracy guru Terrence Moonseed, and NWO representative William De Berg, in order to ask: who is the New World Order? And how can we stop it?

NYE FORSKNING: Det internasjonale tidsskriftet Nature tegner et dystert bilde av verdenen vår dersom vi ikke tar radikale grep. Bilde: National Science Foundation


Ifølge det internasjonale vitenskapstidsskriftet Nature er vi på vei mot en ny masseutryddelse av arter. Vi kjenner allerede til fem masseutryddelser, eller såkalte utdøingsperioder, alle forårsaket av geologiske eller astronomiske hendelser.

I de siste 540 millioner årene har det vært 5 store eventer hvor over 50% av dyreartene har dødd ut. Blant annet for 199,6 millioner år siden, da omkring 50 % av alle arter ble utryddet, årsaken er ukjent. Den siste vi kjenner til skjedde for 65 millioner år siden, i det som blir kalt krittperioden, hvor dinosaurene døde ut.

I Tsjad i Afrika er det funnet en serie med kratre som ser ut til å være 200 millioner år gamle; om de har sammenheng med masseutryddelsen er ukjent, og det forskes enda om det har noen sammenheng.

I likhet med flere andre arter er ulven truet i Norge. I verden er 15 568 arter på listen over truede arter, viser de siste tallene for 2004 fra World Conservation Union (IUCN). Det er en økning på 3300 arter fra året før.

Men biologenes beregninger for hvor mange arter som virkelig forsvinner fra kloden, er langt mer drastiske. Ifølge biolog Petter Johan Schei, direktør ved Fridtjof Nansens Institutt viser beregningene at mellom 10 og 150 arter dør ut hver dag.

Den siste rapporten til World Wildlife Fund og Londons zoologiske samfunn, “The Living Planet Report”, går lenger enn de sedvanlige fortellingene om nylig utdødde arter, hvor av mange av dem er obskure og små. Rapporten konkluderer med at verdens bestand av virveldur dyr, som inkluderer pattedyr, reptiler, fugler, fisk og amfibier — har blitt redusert med hele 52 % i de siste 40 årene før 2010.

Virveldyr eller vertebrater er en betegnelse på dyr med et indre skjelett med ryggvirvler. Gruppens latinske kommer fra vertebra – ryggvirvel. Med sine 60 000 arter er det den største gruppen av ryggstrengdyr. Det er også den dyregruppen som er best undersøkt, ikke minst fordi den omfatter oss selv. Sammenliknet med resten av dyreriket er virveldyr imidlertid en nokså liten gruppe (kun 5 % av alle kjente arter er virveldyr, og kun et halvt prosent av alle antatte arter).

Antall utdødde arter av de ulike slagene er ujevn. Antallet av hav og landdyr har falt 40 %, mens den globale bestanden av ferskvennsarter har sunket med drastiske 76 % på grunn av gjødsel, kloakk og industriell forurening.

Tidsskriftet har regnet ut at 41 prosent av amfibiene, 26 prosent av pattedyrene og 13 prosent av fuglerasene står i fare for å dø ut. En masseutryddelse er definert ut i fra et tap på 75 prosent arter eller mer.

“Vi har utryddet omlag 50 % av verdens virveldyr i de siste 40 åra”, uttalte Anthony Barnosky, som er biologiprofessor ved universitetet i California, Berkeley, til Washington Post. “Vi har utryddet halvdelen av alle individene. Vi har fisket hele 90 % av fisken opp fra havet. Så dette er alvorlige ting som vi gjør mot verden.”

Ifølge Barnosky er den nåværende utryddelsesrate hele 1,200 % større enn normal på grunn av at mennesker dreper dyrene for mat, penger eller utvikling. I dette tempoet vil opp til 75 % av alle kjente arter bli utryddet innen de neste to til tre generasjonene.

Dette er både alarmerende, deprimerende og trist, spesielt når vi vet at det er vi mennesker som er årsaken til at dette skjer – og at vi har alle forutsetninger for å stoppe det, sier Nina Jensen, generalsekretær i World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) Norge.

– Det fryktes at så mye som 30 prosent av artene våre kan utryddes av klimaendringer alene. Det er vårt enorme forbruk av ressurser som er årsaken til denne dramatiske utviklingen, forteller Jensen, mens det internasjonale vitenskapstidsskriftet Nature har regnet ut at 41 % av amfibiene, 26 % av pattedyrene og 13 % av fuglerasene står i fare for å dø ut.

Dette kan altså bli den første menneskeskapte masseutryddelsen, ifølge tidsskriftet Nature, hvor jakt, fiske og andre former for utnyttelse av naturressurser utgjør 37 prosent av trusselbildet. På andreplass kommer habitatsødeleggelse og -endring. Klimaforandringer kommer på fjerdeplass, med 7 prosent.

Rundt 1 371 500 dyrearter er oppdaget så langt, men det er stor uenighet om hvor mange arter som faktisk eksisterer. Tallene svinger fra to millioner til 50 millioner. Dette gjør det også vanskelig å beregne hvor lang tid det kan ta før man når en masseutryddelse, men tidsskriftet Nature opererer med mellom hundre til tusener av år. Men det trenger ikke å gå så langt som masseutryddelse før konsekvensene blir merkbare. Konsekvensene av ødelagt natur og utryddede arter vet man ofte ikke før de er vekk.

– Økosystemet er som et korthus – fjerner du et kort for mye kan hele huset rase sammen. Det er stor grunn til å frykte kollaps av hele økosystemer og at vi mister sentrale funksjoner som pollinering og vannforsyning, sier Jensen. Økonomisk kan det også gi ringvirkninger. Verdien av naturens økosystemtjenester er beregnet til å tilsvare 243 111 milliarder norske kroner hvert år.

Den internasjonale rødlisten til  International Union for Conservation of Nature opererer med 4529 pattedyr, fugler og amfibier som anses i fare for å bli utryddet. Denne listen kan varierer med de nasjonale rødlistene, siden ett dyr som er utrydningstruet i ett land, ikke trenger å være det på verdensbasis.

I Norge er 2398 arter regnet som er truede eller sårbare på norsk rødliste. Halvparten av Norges truede arter lever i skogen. – Rundt halvparten av artene i den norske rødlisten over truede arter er knyttet til gammel skog. Det viktigste virkemiddelet for å redde disse artene fra utryddelse er å styrke skogvernet, samt drive et bærekraftig skogbruk i de resterende 90 prosent. Går arter tapt, får vi dem aldri tilbake, forteller Jensen.

Eksempler på arter som er utryddet er balinesisk og tasmansk tiger, vietnamesisk neshorn, geirfuglen, og Stellars sjøku. Den tasmanske tigeren, på norsk bedre kjent som pungulven, døde trolig i fangenskap i Hobart Zoo på Tasmania i 1936.

– Det er ingen som har eksakte tall på hvor mange dyr- og plantearter som vi allerede har utryddet, men vi utrydder i dag arter i et tempo som er mellom 1000 og 10 000 ganger raskere enn naturlig, forteller generalsekretær Jensen.

Ifølge Jensen kan likevel en radikal omlegging av samfunnsstrukturen være med på å forebygge den dystre utviklingen: – Ressursbruken må bli mye mer effektiv og verdens energi må komme fra fornybare kilder. De viktigste tingene vi kan gjøre er å bekjempe ulovlig jakt og fiske, drive smartere samfunnsplanlegging som ivaretar natur, styrke skogvernet, og styrke kunnskapen og kartleggingen av natur og arter.

Menneske kan med andre ord bli kjent for den største utryddelsen noen gang. brenner all fossil energi. kometen som tok dinosaurene utryddet ca 70 – 80 % av liv på jorden, i en periode fra 100000 til en mill år. Menneske har tatt 50% av naturens liv på korte 40 år. Vi er tydeligvis gode på og drepe.

Lurer på hvor mye liv på jorden som kommer til og forsvinne pga menneske. Kanskje verre en de som var før. det er mulig og hjemme seg i dypt vann huler osv under de andre 5 kjente store utryddelsene, men en komet søker ikke med ekkolodd og annet for og finne selv de få fiskene og annet som gjemmer seg.

Worst case senario er at bare små insekter/plangton og andre microber ovelever. Good news er at liv vil utvikle seg igjen og starte en ny epoke, med nesten alle kjente dyre/planteliv borte. Hvem vet hvilke former liv da vil ta.

Saken er at vi har en enorm overproduksjon og et enormt overforbruk – det vi trenger er mindre og mer kreative arbeidsplasser og borgerlønn, noe som kan føre til at vi bedre kan sette oss inn i problemstillingene og utfordringene som dagens samfunn står overfor. Vi må gå fra Homo Economicus til Home Ecologicus, og basere vårt samfunn på en dyp grønn økonomi eller kretsløpsøkonomi.

Det hele blir ganske sykt, når vi ikke jobber for å leve, men lever for å jobbe. Især tatt i betraktning av at vi har en kulturell, økonomisk og økologisk krise, har utryddet hele 53 % av alle dyrearter i de siste 40 åra, aldri før hatt et så stort mellom fattig og rik og produserer mat til 12 milliarder mennesker, kaster mat tilsvarende til 6 milliarder mennesker og lar 1 milliard mennesker sulte i hjel. Dette er hva jeg har valgt å kalle et sykt samfunn!

På 40 år har vi utslettet 50 % av alle dyrearter, ødelagt naturen i de grader, blitt med på den ene imperialistiske krigen etter den andre og forskjellene mellom folk kan sies å være lite annet enn groteske.

Samtidig beskylder folk en for å være konspirasjonstenker bare fordi man evner å tenke kritisk og selvstendig, samt tørr å stille spørsmålstegn ved ting som så åpenlyst ikke passer inn med det vi forhøre gjennom våre tankeløse og fordummende medier og av våre så alt for ofte ansvarsløse politikere som gjør lite annet enn å mele sin egen kake og verne om de rikestes interesser.

Det å være ignorant i dagens samfunn med så mye informasjon tilgjengelig er et valg som så alt for mange velger i stedet for å sette de ansvarlige på plass. I stedet for å beskylde folk for å være konspirasjonsteoretikere bør man stille de ansvarlige til veggs. Gjør man ikke dette så viser det kun at man har tatt et valg – å være ignorant.

Det som videre skjer er at folk som bestemmer seg for å slutte å ta til seg ny kunnskap om fx militæret og klimaet, samtidig utvikler stadig bedre beskyttelsesmekanismer og rasjonaliseringer for hvorfor dette valget er det eneste riktige, og for hvorfor det å vite enda mer om militæret eller klimaet er både unødvendig, nedslående, deprimerende, teit, fanatisk etc etc.

Enderesultatet her er at de som valgte å slutte å ta til seg ny kunnskap sitter igjen med et inntrykk av alle disse som ikke sluttet å ta til seg ny kunnskap som teite, nerdete, konspirasjonsteoretiske, og, ikke minst, kunnskapsløse. Ironien er med andre ord fullkommen. Kanskje man heller bør stille spørsmålet om hvorfor ting har blitt som de har blitt?

Ny forskning: På vei mot jordas sjette masseutryddelse

Planet Earth, the half-empty zoo – Chicago Tribune

Modern destruction of animal populations rivals extinction of dinosaurs, scientists warn

The Five Worst Mass Extinctions


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The Gargareans and the Amazons

Posted by Sjur Cappelen Papazian on February 26, 2015

In Greek mythology, the Gargareans were an all-male tribe. They had sex with the Amazons annually in order to keep both tribes reproductive. Varying accounts suggest that they may have been kidnapped, raped, and murdered for this purpose, or that they may have had relations willingly.

The Amazons kept the female children, raising them as warriors, and gave the males to the Gargareans. Jaimoukha suggests that the myth might have been a nod to the similarity between Circassians and Dzurdzuks, despite their very different languages.

The Gargareans are held by some historians to be a component of the ancestry of the Chechen and the Ingush peoples, and equivalent or at least related to the Georgian name Dzurdzuks.

Gaius Plinius Secundus also localizes Gargarei at North of the Caucasus, but calls them Gegar. Some scholars (P.K. Uslar, K. Miller, N.F. Yakovleff, E.I. Krupnoff, L.A. Elnickiy, I.M. Diakonoff, V. N. Gemrakeli) supported that Gargarei is earlier for of Ingush ethnonym.

Jaimoukha notes that Gargareans is one of many Nakh roots- gergara, meaning, in fact, “kindred” in proto-Nakh. If this is the case, it would make Gargarei virtually equivalent to the Georgian term Dzurdzuk (referring to the lake Durdukka in the South Caucasus, where they are thought to have migrated from), which applied to a Nakh people who migrated North across the mountains to settle in modern Ingushetia.

The Ancient Greek chronicler Strabo mentioned that Gargareans had migrated from eastern Asia Minor (i.e. Urartu) to the North Caucasus, before intermixing with the local population.

In addition to their importance to the ancestry of Chechens and Ingush, the Gargareans have also been considered possibly central to the formation of the Èrs, another historical (albeit now extinct) Nakh people living in Northern Armenia, Caucasian Albania and Hereti (the name Hereti is derived from them).

Strabo wrote that “… the Amazons live close to Gargarei, on the northern foothills of the Caucasus mountains”. The Amazons were attributed to the Circassians via the root maze.

The city of Amasya, the Amaseia or Amasia of antiquity, stands in the mountains above the Black Sea coast, set apart from the rest of Anatolia in a narrow valley along the banks of the Yeşilırmak River.

Although near the Black Sea, this area is high above the coast and has an inland climate, well-suited to growing apples, for which Amasya province, one of the provinces in north-central Anatolia Turkey, is famed.

It was the home of the geographer Strabo and the birthplace of the 15th century scholar and physician Amirdovlat Amasiatsi. Located in a narrow cleft of the Yesilirmak (Iris) river, it has a history of 7,500 years which has left many traces still evident today.

According to Strabo (64/63 BC – c. AD 24) the Greek name comes from Amasis, the queen of the Amazons, who were said to have lived here. The name has changed little throughout history: The name are all found on ancient Greek and Roman coinage and continue to be used in Modern Greek.

Amastris (Greek: killed c. 284 BC) also called Amastrine, was a Persian Princess. She was the daughter of Oxyathres, the brother of the Persian King Darius III.

Amastris was given by Alexander the Great in marriage to Craterus, however Craterus later decided to marry Phila, one of the daughters of Antipater. She later married Dionysius, tyrant of Heraclea Pontica, in Bithynia, in 322 BC. She bore him two sons named: Clearchus II and Oxyathres.

Amastris married Lysimachus in 302 BC. However, he abandoned her shortly afterwards and married Arsinoe II, one of the daughters of Ptolemy I Soter, the first Pharaoh of Ptolemaic Egypt. During the brief marriage of Lysimachus and Amastris, she may have borne him a child, perhaps a daughter who may have been the first wife of Ptolemy Keraunos.

After the death of Dionysius, in 306 BC, she became guardian of their children. Several others joined in this administration. After her marriage to Lysimachus ended, Amastris retired to Heraclea, which she governed in her own right.

She also founded shortly after 300 BC a city called after her own name Amastris, or Amasra, on the sea-coast of Paphlagonia, by the fusion (synoecism) of the four smaller towns of Sesamus, Cromna, Cytorus and Tium.

One of these towns, Tium, later regained its autonomy, but the other three remained part of the city of Amastris’ territory. She was drowned by her two sons about 284 BC.

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Are contemporary Turks Armenian?

Posted by Sjur Cappelen Papazian on February 25, 2015

A number of studies of genetics, in the past decade, including several by Armenian scientists, have concluded that the DNA of modern Turks has an extremely high percentage of Armenian DNA. Other geneticists say that less than 10% of Turkey’s population has Central Asian/Mongol origins and that 90% of Turkish ancestry is a genetic cocktail. Others have gone so far as to wonder whether most Turks of Turkey are acculturated Armenians (same genetic structure) and that Turks of Turkey are the only people in the world who have completely changed their genetic pool from Turkic to that of Asia Minor and the Balkans.

Are Contemporary Turks Armenian?

This is a rather comprehensive overview of the issue of Turkish origins from an archaeological/anthropological/historical and genetic perspective. It should serve as a nice overview of the literature on the subject for anyone interested in the topic.

The authors don’t estimate a % estimate of the impact of incoming Turkic speakers vs. pre-Turkic Anatolians, but marshall enough evidence to show that massive migration into Anatolia from the east was not responsible for the linguistic Turkicization of the peninsula.

A minor observation on the genetic aspects of the paper is that the authors reference the old claim that Y-haplogroups G and J share common ancestry; this is not our current understanding of the Y-chromosome phylogeny which puts haplogroup J with haplogroup I in the IJ clade and more generally the IJK clade at the exclusion of G.

In any case, this does not materially affect the paper’s conclusions as both G and J originated in West Eurasia and may only have entered Anatolia with Turkic speakers as back-migration together with haplogroups typical of East Eurasia.

Who Are the Anatolian Turks? A Reappraisal of the Anthropological Genetic Evidence (Yardumian & Schurr 2011)

Anatolian Turkish Genetics: Abstracts and Summaries

Turks, Armenians share similar genes, say scientists

Are Turks acculturated Armenians?

Archaeogenetics of the Near East

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Armenians have a high genetic affinity to ancient Europeans

Posted by Sjur Cappelen Papazian on February 25, 2015


A new study into Armenian genetics reveals that present day Armenians are a mixture of local Bronze Age people who have retained homogeneity for over three thousand years, and show great affinity to ancient Europeans.

Armenians have a high genetic affinity to ancient Europeans

Genetic evidence for an origin of the Armenians from Bronze Age mixing of multiple populations

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İsmail Enver: “We have destroyed the former by the sword, we shall destroy the latter through starvation.”

Posted by Sjur Cappelen Papazian on February 23, 2015

İsmail Enver (November 22, 1881 – August 4, 1922) – one of the triumvirate rulers

İsmail Enver – Wikiquote

“We have destroyed the former by the sword, we shall destroy the latter through starvation”, publicly declared on 19 May 1916.

Quoted in “The Evil 100” – Page 35 – by Martin Gilman Wolcott – Social Science – 2004.

The outbreak of World War I in August 1914 brought Lebanon further problems, as Turkey allied itself with Germany and AustriaHungary . The Turkish government abolished Lebanon’s semiautonomous status and appointed Jamal Pasha, then minister of the navy, as the commander in chief of the Turkish forces in Syria, with discretionary powers. Known for his harshness, he militarily occupied Lebanon and replaced the Armenian mutasarrif, Ohannes Pasha, with a Turk, Munif Pasha.

In February 1915, frustrated by his unsuccessful attack on the British forces protecting the Suez Canal, Jamal Pasha initiated a blockade of the entire eastern Mediterranean coast to prevent supplies from reaching his enemies and indirectly caused thousands of deaths from widespread famine and plagues. Lebanon suffered as much as, or more than, any other Ottoman province.

The blockade deprived the country of its tourists and summer visitors, and remittances from relatives and friends were lost or delayed for months. The Turkish Army cut down trees for wood to fuel trains or for military purposes.

In 1916 Turkish authorities publicly executed twenty-one Syrians and Lebanese in Damascus and Beirut, respectively, for alleged anti-Turkish activities. The date, May 6, is commemorated annually in both countries as Martyrs’ Day, and the site in Beirut has come to be known as Martyrs’ Square.

World War I saw the rapid spread of diseases in the Ottoman Empire.Soldiers who were frequently on the move between battlefronts became ideal carriers for many types of microbes, while mass deportations like those of the Armenian genocide also contributed to outbreaks.

The war drove up the price of soap and made it prohibitively expensive for many across the region, further hastening the spread of diseases. And, as famine and starvation began to spread across Syria, especially Lebanon, emaciated bodies became particularly vulnerable to diseases, especially Typhus, known by some as ‘hunger typhus’ for its tenacity to attack the malnourished. Fever, TB and Cholera also spread rapidly during the war.

The Ottomans caused the deaths of one-third of the entire population of Lebanon. “We have destroyed Armenians by the sword, we shall destroy the Lebanese through starvation”, Enver Pasha said on intended genocide of innocents.

Lebanon, before its current borders, had a booming silk industry (run mainly by women). Lebanon depended upon this industry to stimulate its economy and keep its population fed and healthy. Djamal Pasha ran Lebanon at the time for the Ottoman Empire. He put a blockade on the Mediterranean coast, not allowing anything in or out.

The industry died in Lebanon as jobs dried up. People became poor and destitute. Famine spread and, with it, disease spread too. To make things worse, a swarm of locusts came down and devastated what little crops were being tended to by ailing Lebanese. Some resorted to cannibalism to keep from dying. Jesuit priests’ records show that many came to confess having eaten their own children.

Extreme hunger and desolation caused madness among people.The roads were lined with the skeletal bodies of Lebanese.By the end of the whole ordeal, 200,000 Lebanese died of starvation and sickness caused by the Ottomans. That’s one-third of the population. It was no coincidence that, at the time, Lebanon’s population was about 87% Christian.

Relief came, however, in September 1918 when the British general Edmund Allenby and Faysal I, son of Sharif Husayn of Mecca, moved into Palestine with British and Arab forces, thus opening the way for the occupation of Syria and Lebanon. At the San Remo Conference held in Italy in April 1920, the Allies gave France a mandate over Greater Syria. France then appointed General Henri Gouraud to implement the mandate provisions.

Syria and the revival of the Genocidal Ottoman Empire

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Serpent of wisdom

Posted by Sjur Cappelen Papazian on February 20, 2015


dam and Eve and the serpent in the Garden of Eden.

The serpent, or snake, is one of the oldest and most widespread mythological symbols. The word is derived from Latin serpens, a crawling animal or snake. Snakes have been associated with some of the oldest rituals known to humankind and represent dual expression of good and evil.

The serpent in mythology

Serpent of wisdom

Serpent (symbolism)

Snake worship

Serpents and Snakes – Myth Encyclopedia

Dragons And Serpent-Gods In World Mythology

Legendary serpents

Horned Serpent

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