Cradle of Civilization

A Blog about the Birth of Our Civilisation and Development

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  • The Fertile Crescent

    The Fertile Crescent is a term for an old fertile area north, east and west of the Arabian Desert in Southwest Asia. The Mesopotamian valley and the Nile valley fall under this term even though the mountain zone around Mesopotamia is the natural zone for the transition in a historical sense.

    As a result of a number of unique geographical factors the Fertile Crescent have an impressive history of early human agricultural activity and culture. Besides the numerous archaeological sites with remains of skeletons and cultural relics the area is known primarily for its excavation sites linked to agricultural origins and development of the Neolithic era.

    It was here, in the forested mountain slopes of the periphery of this area, that agriculture originated in an ecologically restricted environment. The western zone and areas around the upper Euphrates gave growth to the first known Neolithic farming communities with small, round houses , also referred to as Pre Pottery Neolithic A (PPNA) cultures, which dates to just after 10,000 BC and include areas such as Jericho, the world’s oldest city.

    During the subsequent PPNB from 9000 BC these communities developed into larger villages with farming and animal husbandry as the main source of livelihood, with settlement in the two-story, rectangular house. Man now entered in symbiosis with grain and livestock species, with no opportunity to return to hunter – gatherer societies.

    The area west and north of the plains of the Euphrates and Tigris also saw the emergence of early complex societies in the much later Bronze Age (about 4000 BC). There is evidence of written culture and early state formation in this northern steppe area, although the written formation of the states relatively quickly shifted its center of gravity into the Mesopotamian valley and developed there. The area is therefore in very many writers been named “The Cradle of Civilization.”

    The area has experienced a series of upheavals and new formation of states. When Turkey was formed in the aftermath of the genocide against the Pontic Greeks, Armenians and Assyrians perpetrated by the Young Turks during the First World War it is estimated that two-thirds to three-quarters of all Armenians and Assyrians in the region died, and the Pontic Greeks was pushed to Greece.

    Israel was created out of the Ottoman Empire and the conquering of the Palestinian terretories. The existence of large Arab nation states from the Maghreb to the Levant has since represented a potential threat to Israel which should be neutralised when opportunities arise.

    This line of thinking was at the heart of David Ben Gurion’s policies in the 1950s which sought to exacerbate tensions between Christians and Muslims in the Lebanon for the fruits of acquiring regional influence by the dismembering the country and the possible acquisition of additional territory.

    The Christians are now being systematically targeted for genocide in Syria according to Vatican and other sources with contacts on the ground among the besieged Christian community.

    According to reports by the Vatican’s Fides News Agency collected by the Centre for the Study of Interventionism, the US-backed Free Syrian Army rebels and ever more radical spin-off factions are sacking Christian churches, shooting Christians dead in the street, broadcasting ultimatums that all Christians must be cleansed from the rebel-held villages, and even shooting priests.

    It is now time that the genocide against the Pontic Greeks, Assyrians and Armenians is being recognized, that the Israeli occupation, settlements and violence against the Palestinians stop, and that the various minorities in the area start to live their lifes in peace – without violence and threats from majority populations, or from the West, and then specificially from the US.

    War in the Fertile Crescent

    Everyone is free to use the text on this blog as they want. There is no copyright etc. This because knowledge is more important than rules and regulations.

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“Hurrian” root in Indo-European languages

Posted by Sjur Cappelen Papazian on December 17, 2014

In Hittite inscriptions Armenian Kingdoms spread all over historic Armenia are mentioned as Armatana, Hayasa (Hittite “sa” connotes to “land/country”) and Hurri. Based on the name “Hurri” from Hittite inscriptions modern historians invented a new nation and called “Hurrians”….Just like from Sumer they invented a new nation called “Sumerians”…

Hay is a self designation name of Armenians meaning “Armenian” and Armenian God Hay is mentioned in Sumerian inscriptions (Andrew Collins). Previously country was called by the Armenians as Hayq which is the name of Armenian forefather Haik and also is a plural for Hay – ArmenianS. In Middle Ages “stan” suffix which is a plural form in “Hurrian” was added and it is now called “Hayastan”. Forms Hayastan and Hayasa from Hittite inscriptions mean the same – Country/land of Hay…country/land of Armenians.

In Armenian language “tun/tan” is “home/of home” which is a singular form in “Hurrian”. “Hurrians” called their Kingdom Mitan(ni). Ni is suffix. In Armenian Mitan(ni) means One House. The Father of Egyptian Archaeology William Matthew Flinders Petrie considered Mitanni Kingdom of Armenian Highland to be an Armenian Kingdom.

The suffix -stan (Persian: ـستان -stān) means “place of”or “country”. English – to stand, Latin stāre, and Greek histamai (ίσταμαι), all meaning “to stand” and Russian стан (stan, meaning “settlement” or “semi-permanent camp”).

In Polish, stan means “state” or “condition”, while in Serbo-Croatian it translates as “apartment” in its modern usage, while its original meaning was “habitat”. In Czech and Slovak, it means “tent” or, in military terms, “headquarters”.

Also in Germanic languages, the root can be found in Stand (“place, location”), and in Stadt (German), stad/sted (Dutch/Scandinavian), stêd (West Frisian) and stead (English), all meaning either “place” or “city”. The suffix -stan is analogous to the suffix -land, present in many country and location names.

“In the preceding chapters, we presented evidence that Hurrian and Proto-Indo-European “[bear] a stronger affinity, both in the roots of verbs and in the forms of grammar, than could have been produced by accident; so strong that no philologer could examine [them] without believing them to have sprung from some common source.

Our discussion now comes to an end. In the course of this book, we have attempted to show, through a careful analysis of the relevant phonological, morphological, and lexical data, that Urarto-Hurrian and Indo-European are, in fact, genetically related at a very deep level, as we indicated at the beginning of this chapter by quoting from the famous Third Anniversary Discourse (1786) of Sir William Jones.

We propose that both are descended from a common ancestor, which may be called “Proto-Asianic”, to revive an old, but not forgotten, term.” The Indo-European Elements In Hurrian, by Arnaud Fournet and Allan R Bomhard.

One of many Armenian tribes speaking Armenian dialect was called Hurri (cuneiform Hurri) from the Armenian word Hur/Hurri meaning Fire/Divine Spark. In Armenian the word Hurri/Hur is also a variant of Ar/Har/Hur. Indo-European root Ar- meaning “assemble/create” which is vastly used in names of or regarding the Sun, light, or fire, found in Armenia, Ararat, Aryan, Arta etc.” (1)

We also know that these Armenian Hurri tribes come from Southern Armenia, and are referred to as Horrittes by the Bible. Later in the ninth-seventh centuries B.C. the Armenian (Hurri and other Armenian tribes of Armenian Highland) people established the kingdom of Ararat (Van-Urartu) in the Armenian Highlands.

” Hurrian – A member of an ancient people, originally from Armenia, who settled in Syria and northern Mesopotamia during the 3rd-2nd millennia B.C and were later absorbed by the Hittites and Assyrians.” (2)

“The place of origin of Hurrians and thus the Early South-Caucasian culture has been placed in the nowadays Armenia”. (3)

According to Dr. Johannes Lehman “The Hittites,”, All indications point toward the general region of Armenia as a main area of Hurrian concentration.

In Armenian folk tale about a flying magical (bird)-girl is called “Huri Peri.” In modern Armenian “Huri Peri” is referred to a magically beautiful girl.

“Yet the Hurrians did not disappear from history. Away to the North in their Armenian homeland, they entrenched themselves and build up the kingdom of Urartu.” (4)

“Except for the principality of Hayasa in the Armenian mountains, the Hurrians appear to have lost all ethnic identity by the last part of the 2nd millennium BC”. (5)

Some of words in today’s Yerevan and Hurri dialects:

agarak “field” – Hurri awari “field”; astem “to reveal one’s ancestry” and Hurri asti “woman, wife”; art “field” ad Hurri arde “town”; xnjor “apple” – Hurri hinz-ore “apple”; kut “grain” – Hurri kade “barley” ; maxr “pine” – Hurri mahir “fir, juniper”; salor “plum” Hurrian origin; tarma-ǰur “spring water” – Hurri tarmani “source”; arciw “eagle” – Hurri-Vannic Arsiba, a proper name with a meaning of “eagle”; xarxarel “to destroy” – Hurri – Vannic harhar-s- “to destroy”; caṙ “tree” -Huri sare “garden”; cov “sea” – Hurri-Vannic sue “sea”; ułt “camel” – Hurri-Vannic ultu “camel”; pełem “dig, excavate” – Hurri- Vannic pile “canal” ; san “kettle” – Hurri-Vannic sane “kettle, pot”; sur “sword” – Hurri- Vannic sure “sword.”

Solar Symbolism

Sun symbolism with slight variation in the number of rays has been included in the seals, frescoes and coat of arms of various Armenian kingdoms, starting at least since the time of the kingdoms of Mitanni and Ararat (Urartu). The solar symbolism was continued by the succeeding dynasties (Orontids, Artaxiads, Arsacids etc.) that ruled the Kingdom of Greater Armenia. (6)

The eagle and lion are ancient Armenian symbols dating from the first Armenian kingdoms that existed prior to Christ. They have always been represented throughout various Armenian dynasties including, Aramian, Orontid (Yervanduni), Artaxiad (Artashessian), Arsacid (Arshakuni), Bagratid, Rubenid and many others.

“On the seal of the king of Mitanni we see the winged solar disc with an eagle and a lion on each side, which symbolize in mythology the deity of the sun and fire. The same features appear on Tigran’s crown, with the same solar disc and the two eagles, one on each side, and the crown itself shaped at the top like spikes representing the rays of the sun”. (7)

1. T. V. Gamkrelidze and V. V. Ivanov, The Early History of Indo-European (aka Aryan) Languages, Scientific American, March 1990; James P. Mallory, “Kuro-Araxes Culture”, Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture, Fitzroy Dearborn, 1997.

2. The Oxford English Reference Dictionary, © Oxford University Press 1996.

3. Greppin, Dyakonov, 1991.

4. Jacquetta Hawkes, The First Great Civilizations.

5. The Hurrians, The Rise of the Hurrians, Robert Antonio

6. Gevork Nazaryan, Historian, Armenologist.

7. “Armenia, Sumer and Subartu” by Prof. Dr.Martiros Kavoukjian.

Painting by Menua Chaparyan.

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