Cradle of Civilization

A Blog about the Birth of Our Civilisation and Development

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  • The Fertile Crescent

    The Fertile Crescent is a term for an old fertile area north, east and west of the Arabian Desert in Southwest Asia. The Mesopotamian valley and the Nile valley fall under this term even though the mountain zone around Mesopotamia is the natural zone for the transition in a historical sense.

    As a result of a number of unique geographical factors the Fertile Crescent have an impressive history of early human agricultural activity and culture. Besides the numerous archaeological sites with remains of skeletons and cultural relics the area is known primarily for its excavation sites linked to agricultural origins and development of the Neolithic era.

    It was here, in the forested mountain slopes of the periphery of this area, that agriculture originated in an ecologically restricted environment. The western zone and areas around the upper Euphrates gave growth to the first known Neolithic farming communities with small, round houses , also referred to as Pre Pottery Neolithic A (PPNA) cultures, which dates to just after 10,000 BC and include areas such as Jericho, the world’s oldest city.

    During the subsequent PPNB from 9000 BC these communities developed into larger villages with farming and animal husbandry as the main source of livelihood, with settlement in the two-story, rectangular house. Man now entered in symbiosis with grain and livestock species, with no opportunity to return to hunter – gatherer societies.

    The area west and north of the plains of the Euphrates and Tigris also saw the emergence of early complex societies in the much later Bronze Age (about 4000 BC). There is evidence of written culture and early state formation in this northern steppe area, although the written formation of the states relatively quickly shifted its center of gravity into the Mesopotamian valley and developed there. The area is therefore in very many writers been named “The Cradle of Civilization.”

    The area has experienced a series of upheavals and new formation of states. When Turkey was formed in the aftermath of the genocide against the Pontic Greeks, Armenians and Assyrians perpetrated by the Young Turks during the First World War it is estimated that two-thirds to three-quarters of all Armenians and Assyrians in the region died, and the Pontic Greeks was pushed to Greece.

    Israel was created out of the Ottoman Empire and the conquering of the Palestinian terretories. The existence of large Arab nation states from the Maghreb to the Levant has since represented a potential threat to Israel which should be neutralised when opportunities arise.

    This line of thinking was at the heart of David Ben Gurion’s policies in the 1950s which sought to exacerbate tensions between Christians and Muslims in the Lebanon for the fruits of acquiring regional influence by the dismembering the country and the possible acquisition of additional territory.

    The Christians are now being systematically targeted for genocide in Syria according to Vatican and other sources with contacts on the ground among the besieged Christian community.

    According to reports by the Vatican’s Fides News Agency collected by the Centre for the Study of Interventionism, the US-backed Free Syrian Army rebels and ever more radical spin-off factions are sacking Christian churches, shooting Christians dead in the street, broadcasting ultimatums that all Christians must be cleansed from the rebel-held villages, and even shooting priests.

    It is now time that the genocide against the Pontic Greeks, Assyrians and Armenians is being recognized, that the Israeli occupation, settlements and violence against the Palestinians stop, and that the various minorities in the area start to live their lifes in peace – without violence and threats from majority populations, or from the West, and then specificially from the US.

    War in the Fertile Crescent

    Everyone is free to use the text on this blog as they want. There is no copyright etc. This because knowledge is more important than rules and regulations.

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Oldest European cities

Posted by Sjur Cappelen Papazian on September 30, 2012


Oldest European cities

Bulgaria Boasts Europe’s Oldest City?

Plovdiv – Wikipedia

Plovdiv’s Home Page

Oldest town in Europe discovered

Top 10 Oldest Cities in the World

List of cities by time of continuous habitation – Wikipedia

Here is a list of towns and cities in Europe that were founded at least 3000 years ago (prior to 1000 BCE). The list is of course not exhaustive. Feel free to complete it if you have additional information. Abandonned/destroyed cities are ok too.

I have added the probable main haplogroup(s) of the people who founded the city.

  1. 7,000 BCE : Choirokoitia (Cyprus) => G2a, J2 and E1b1b
  2. 6,500 BCE : Sesklo (Thessaly, Greece) => E1b1b, G2a and J2
  3. 6,000 BCE : Starčevo (Serbia) => E1b1b, G2a and J2
  4. 5,500 BCE : Pločnik (Serbia) => E1b1b, G2a and J2
  5. 5,000 BCE : Varna (Bulgaria) => E1b1b, G2a and J2
  6. 5,000 BCE : Hallstatt (Austria) => E1b1b, G2a and J2 (and I2b ?)
  7. 5,000 BCE : Bratislava (Slovakia) => E1b1b, G2a and J2 (and I2b ?)
  8. 4,800 BCE : Dimini (Thessaly, Greece) => E1b1b, G2a and J2
  9. c. 4,500 BCE : Lerna (Peloponnese, Greece) => E1b1b, G2a and J2
  10. 4,500 BCE : Glauberg (Hesse, Germany) => E1b1b, G2a and J2 (and I2b ?)
  11. 4,000 BCE : Plovdiv (Bulgaria) => E1b1b, G2a and J2
  12. 4,000 BCE : Phaistos (Crete, Greece) => J2
  13. 3,900 BCE : Michelsberg (Baden, Germany) => E1b1b, G2a and J2 (and I2b ?)
  14. 3,800 BCE : Dobrovody (Ukraine) => I2a2, E1b1b , G2a and J2
  15. 3,700 BCE : Talianki (Ukraine) => I2a2, E1b1b , G2a and J2
  16. 3,700 BCE : Maydanets (Ukraine) => I2a2, E1b1b , G2a and J2
  17. 3,250 BCE : Kasenovka (Ukraine) => I2a2, E1b1b , G2a and J2
  18. 3,200 BCE : Skara Brae (Scotland) => G2a and I2b
  19. 3,000 BCE : Troy (Turkey) => R1b and J2
  20. 3,000 BCE : Myrtos Pyrgos (Crete, Greece) => J2
  21. 3,000 BCE : Akrotiri (Cyprus) => , G2a, J2 and E1b1b
  22. 3,000 BCE : Athens (Greece) => E1b1b, G2a, I2, J2
  23. 2,700 BCE : Knossos (Crete, Greece) => J2
  24. 2,500 BCE : Kastri, (Kythera, Greece) => J2
  25. 2,300 BCE : Gournia (Crete, Greece) => J2 (and R1b ?)
  26. 2,300 BCE : Manika (Euboea, Greece) => E1b1b, G2a and J2
  27. 2,000 BCE : Mantua (Italy) => E1b1b G2a, I2a
  28. 1,900 BCE : Mycenae (Greece) => R1a (or R1b)
  29. 1,900 BCE : Mallia (Crete, Greece) => J2 (and R1b ?)
  30. 1,900 BCE : Kato Zakros (Crete, Greece) => J2 (and R1b ?)
  31. 1,600 BCE : Hagia Triada (Crete, Greece) => J2 (and R1b ?)
  32. 1,600 BCE : Chania (Crete, Greece) => J2 (and R1b ?)
  33. 1,400 BCE : Larnaca (Cyprus) => G2a, J2 and E1b1b
  34. 1,300 BCE : Heuneburg (Württemberg, Germany) => R1b
  35. 1,200 BCE : Lisbon (Portugal) => G2a and I2 and R1b
  36. 1,100 BCE : Cadiz (Spain) => J2, E1b1b, G2a
  37. 1,100 BCE : Chios (North Aegean, Greece) => J2, E1b1b (and R1b ?)
  38. 1,000 BCE : Würzburg (Bavaria, Germany) => R1b

Here is a list of late Neolithic to early Bronze Age fortified villages and small towns from Iberia:

  1. c. 3,500 BCE : Leceia (Estremadura, Portugal) => J2, G2a and E1b1b
  2. c. 3,200 BCE : Los Millares (Andalusia, Spain) => J2, G2a and E1b1b
  3. c. 3,000 BCE : Castelo Velho de Freixo de Numão (North Portugal) => J2, G2a and E1b1b
  4. c. 3,000 BCE : Almizaraque (Andalusia, Spain) => J2, G2a and E1b1b
  5. c. 2,800 BCE : Zambujal (Portugal) => J2, G2a and E1b1b
  6. c. 2,600 BCE : Vila Nova de São Pedro (Estremadura, Portugal) => J2, G2a and E1b1b
  7. c. 2,500 BCE : Santa Justa (Algarve, Portugal) => J2, G2a and E1b1b
  8. c. 2,500 BCE : Monte da Tumba (Setubal, Portugal) => J2, G2a and E1b1b
  9. c. 2,400 BCE : Pragança (Estremadura, Portugal) => J2, G2a and E1b1b
  10. c. 1,800 BCE : Antas (Andalusia, Spain) => E1b1b, G2a, J2, I2a and R1b ?
  11. c. 1,800 BCE : El Argar (Murcia, Spain) => E1b1b, G2a, J2, I2a and R1b ?
  12. c. 1,800 BCE : Lugarico Viejo (Andalusia, Spain) => E1b1b, G2a, J2, I2a2 and R1b ?
  13. c. 1,800 BCE : Ifre (Murcia, Spain) => E1b1b, G2a, J2, I2a and R1b ?
  14. c. 1,800 BCE : Zapata (Murcia, Spain) => E1b1b, G2a, J2, I2a and R1b ?
  15. c. 1,800 BCE : Puntarrón Chico (Murcia, Spain) => E1b1b, G2a, J2, I2a and R1b ?
  16. c. 1,800 BCE : Cabezo Redondo (Murcia, Spain) => E1b1b, G2a and J2
  17. c. 1,800 BCE : Gatas (Andalusia, Spain) => E1b1b, G2a, J2, I2a and R1b ?
  18. c. 1,800 BCE : Cerro de la Virgen de Orce (Andalusia, Spain) => E1b1b, G2a, J2, I2a and R1b ?
  19. c. 1,800 BCE : Cerro de la Encina (Andalusia, Spain) => E1b1b, G2a, J2, I2a and R1b ?
  20. c. 1,700 BCE : Cuesta del Negro (Andalusia, Spain) => E1b1b, G2a and J2
  21. c. 1,550 BCE : Fuente Álamo (Andalusia, Spain) => E1b1b, G2a, J2, I2a and R1b ?

Haplogroup J (Y-DNA) – Wikipedia

Haplogroup J2 (Y-DNA) – Wikipedia

Haplogroup G (Y-DNA) – Wikipedia

Haplogroup I (Y-DNA) – Wikipedia

Haplogroup I2 (Y-DNA) – Wikipedia

Haplogroup R (Y-DNA) – Wikipedia

Haplogroup R1b (Y-DNA) – Wikipedia

YDNA Haplogroup Descriptions & Information Links

Learn about Y-chromosome Haplogroup I

Distribution of haplogroup G in general

Ötzi, the Tyrolean Iceman belonged to Y-haplogroup G2a4

The oldest towns outside the Aegean follow the Neolithic expansion of haplogroup E-V13 and J2 from Thessaly along the Danube basin (see map below). Unsurprisingly E-V13 is most commonly found from northern Greece to Serbia, with Kosovo peaking at 45% of the population. It reaches 19% in Macedonian Greeks, 23% in Albania, 24% in Serbia, and 40% in the Sesklo/Dimini region of Thessaly.

Haplogroup E (Y-DNA) – Wikipedia

Haplogroup E1b1b (Y-DNA) – Wikipedia

Haplogroup T originated in the Horn of Africa, like E1b1b and probably arrived in Europe through Thessaly with E1b1b. Its highest incidence in Europe is in Serbia (7%), probably due to an early founder effect among the early farmers in the region. Haplogroup T averages 2% along the Danube (up to Austria), but is hardly found in North-West Europe.

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