Cradle of Civilization

A Blog about the Birth of Our Civilisation and Development

Oldest European cities

Posted by Fredsvenn on September 30, 2012

Khirokitia

Oldest European cities

https://i2.wp.com/tc-media.explorra.com/1c0/192/%7B1c01925e-fec3-4f42-8e0b-a089d82d6aa0%7D.4500995714_98968a3708_o.jpg

Bulgaria Boasts Europe’s Oldest City?

Plovdiv – Wikipedia

Plovdiv’s Home Page

Oldest town in Europe discovered

Top 10 Oldest Cities in the World

List of cities by time of continuous habitation – Wikipedia

Here is a list of towns and cities in Europe that were founded at least 3000 years ago (prior to 1000 BCE). The list is of course not exhaustive. Feel free to complete it if you have additional information. Abandonned/destroyed cities are ok too.

I have added the probable main haplogroup(s) of the people who founded the city.

  1. 7,000 BCE : Choirokoitia (Cyprus) => G2a, J2 and E1b1b
  2. 6,500 BCE : Sesklo (Thessaly, Greece) => E1b1b, G2a and J2
  3. 6,000 BCE : Starčevo (Serbia) => E1b1b, G2a and J2
  4. 5,500 BCE : Pločnik (Serbia) => E1b1b, G2a and J2
  5. 5,000 BCE : Varna (Bulgaria) => E1b1b, G2a and J2
  6. 5,000 BCE : Hallstatt (Austria) => E1b1b, G2a and J2 (and I2b ?)
  7. 5,000 BCE : Bratislava (Slovakia) => E1b1b, G2a and J2 (and I2b ?)
  8. 4,800 BCE : Dimini (Thessaly, Greece) => E1b1b, G2a and J2
  9. c. 4,500 BCE : Lerna (Peloponnese, Greece) => E1b1b, G2a and J2
  10. 4,500 BCE : Glauberg (Hesse, Germany) => E1b1b, G2a and J2 (and I2b ?)
  11. 4,000 BCE : Plovdiv (Bulgaria) => E1b1b, G2a and J2
  12. 4,000 BCE : Phaistos (Crete, Greece) => J2
  13. 3,900 BCE : Michelsberg (Baden, Germany) => E1b1b, G2a and J2 (and I2b ?)
  14. 3,800 BCE : Dobrovody (Ukraine) => I2a2, E1b1b , G2a and J2
  15. 3,700 BCE : Talianki (Ukraine) => I2a2, E1b1b , G2a and J2
  16. 3,700 BCE : Maydanets (Ukraine) => I2a2, E1b1b , G2a and J2
  17. 3,250 BCE : Kasenovka (Ukraine) => I2a2, E1b1b , G2a and J2
  18. 3,200 BCE : Skara Brae (Scotland) => G2a and I2b
  19. 3,000 BCE : Troy (Turkey) => R1b and J2
  20. 3,000 BCE : Myrtos Pyrgos (Crete, Greece) => J2
  21. 3,000 BCE : Akrotiri (Cyprus) => , G2a, J2 and E1b1b
  22. 3,000 BCE : Athens (Greece) => E1b1b, G2a, I2, J2
  23. 2,700 BCE : Knossos (Crete, Greece) => J2
  24. 2,500 BCE : Kastri, (Kythera, Greece) => J2
  25. 2,300 BCE : Gournia (Crete, Greece) => J2 (and R1b ?)
  26. 2,300 BCE : Manika (Euboea, Greece) => E1b1b, G2a and J2
  27. 2,000 BCE : Mantua (Italy) => E1b1b G2a, I2a
  28. 1,900 BCE : Mycenae (Greece) => R1a (or R1b)
  29. 1,900 BCE : Mallia (Crete, Greece) => J2 (and R1b ?)
  30. 1,900 BCE : Kato Zakros (Crete, Greece) => J2 (and R1b ?)
  31. 1,600 BCE : Hagia Triada (Crete, Greece) => J2 (and R1b ?)
  32. 1,600 BCE : Chania (Crete, Greece) => J2 (and R1b ?)
  33. 1,400 BCE : Larnaca (Cyprus) => G2a, J2 and E1b1b
  34. 1,300 BCE : Heuneburg (Württemberg, Germany) => R1b
  35. 1,200 BCE : Lisbon (Portugal) => G2a and I2 and R1b
  36. 1,100 BCE : Cadiz (Spain) => J2, E1b1b, G2a
  37. 1,100 BCE : Chios (North Aegean, Greece) => J2, E1b1b (and R1b ?)
  38. 1,000 BCE : Würzburg (Bavaria, Germany) => R1b

Here is a list of late Neolithic to early Bronze Age fortified villages and small towns from Iberia:

  1. c. 3,500 BCE : Leceia (Estremadura, Portugal) => J2, G2a and E1b1b
  2. c. 3,200 BCE : Los Millares (Andalusia, Spain) => J2, G2a and E1b1b
  3. c. 3,000 BCE : Castelo Velho de Freixo de Numão (North Portugal) => J2, G2a and E1b1b
  4. c. 3,000 BCE : Almizaraque (Andalusia, Spain) => J2, G2a and E1b1b
  5. c. 2,800 BCE : Zambujal (Portugal) => J2, G2a and E1b1b
  6. c. 2,600 BCE : Vila Nova de São Pedro (Estremadura, Portugal) => J2, G2a and E1b1b
  7. c. 2,500 BCE : Santa Justa (Algarve, Portugal) => J2, G2a and E1b1b
  8. c. 2,500 BCE : Monte da Tumba (Setubal, Portugal) => J2, G2a and E1b1b
  9. c. 2,400 BCE : Pragança (Estremadura, Portugal) => J2, G2a and E1b1b
  10. c. 1,800 BCE : Antas (Andalusia, Spain) => E1b1b, G2a, J2, I2a and R1b ?
  11. c. 1,800 BCE : El Argar (Murcia, Spain) => E1b1b, G2a, J2, I2a and R1b ?
  12. c. 1,800 BCE : Lugarico Viejo (Andalusia, Spain) => E1b1b, G2a, J2, I2a2 and R1b ?
  13. c. 1,800 BCE : Ifre (Murcia, Spain) => E1b1b, G2a, J2, I2a and R1b ?
  14. c. 1,800 BCE : Zapata (Murcia, Spain) => E1b1b, G2a, J2, I2a and R1b ?
  15. c. 1,800 BCE : Puntarrón Chico (Murcia, Spain) => E1b1b, G2a, J2, I2a and R1b ?
  16. c. 1,800 BCE : Cabezo Redondo (Murcia, Spain) => E1b1b, G2a and J2
  17. c. 1,800 BCE : Gatas (Andalusia, Spain) => E1b1b, G2a, J2, I2a and R1b ?
  18. c. 1,800 BCE : Cerro de la Virgen de Orce (Andalusia, Spain) => E1b1b, G2a, J2, I2a and R1b ?
  19. c. 1,800 BCE : Cerro de la Encina (Andalusia, Spain) => E1b1b, G2a, J2, I2a and R1b ?
  20. c. 1,700 BCE : Cuesta del Negro (Andalusia, Spain) => E1b1b, G2a and J2
  21. c. 1,550 BCE : Fuente Álamo (Andalusia, Spain) => E1b1b, G2a, J2, I2a and R1b ?

Haplogroup J (Y-DNA) – Wikipedia

Haplogroup J2 (Y-DNA) – Wikipedia

Haplogroup G (Y-DNA) – Wikipedia

Haplogroup I (Y-DNA) – Wikipedia

Haplogroup I2 (Y-DNA) – Wikipedia

Haplogroup R (Y-DNA) – Wikipedia

Haplogroup R1b (Y-DNA) – Wikipedia

YDNA Haplogroup Descriptions & Information Links

Learn about Y-chromosome Haplogroup I

Distribution of haplogroup G in general

Ötzi, the Tyrolean Iceman belonged to Y-haplogroup G2a4

The oldest towns outside the Aegean follow the Neolithic expansion of haplogroup E-V13 and J2 from Thessaly along the Danube basin (see map below). Unsurprisingly E-V13 is most commonly found from northern Greece to Serbia, with Kosovo peaking at 45% of the population. It reaches 19% in Macedonian Greeks, 23% in Albania, 24% in Serbia, and 40% in the Sesklo/Dimini region of Thessaly.

Haplogroup E (Y-DNA) – Wikipedia

Haplogroup E1b1b (Y-DNA) – Wikipedia

Haplogroup T originated in the Horn of Africa, like E1b1b and probably arrived in Europe through Thessaly with E1b1b. Its highest incidence in Europe is in Serbia (7%), probably due to an early founder effect among the early farmers in the region. Haplogroup T averages 2% along the Danube (up to Austria), but is hardly found in North-West Europe.

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