Cradle of Civilization

A Blog about the Birth of Our Civilisation and Development

  • Fredsvenn:

    The Fertile Crescent is a term for an old fertile area north, east and west of the Arabian Desert in Southwest Asia. The Mesopotamian valley and the Nile valley fall under this term even though the mountain zone around Mesopotamia is the natural zone for the transition in a historical sense.

    As a result of a number of unique geographical factors the Fertile Crescent have an impressive history of early human agricultural activity and culture. Besides the numerous archaeological sites with remains of skeletons and cultural relics the area is known primarily for its excavation sites linked to agricultural origins and development of the Neolithic era.

    It was here, in the forested mountain slopes of the periphery of this area, that agriculture originated in an ecologically restricted environment. The western zone and areas around the upper Euphrates gave growth to the first known Neolithic farming communities with small, round houses , also referred to as Pre Pottery Neolithic A (PPNA) cultures, which dates to just after 10,000 BC and include areas such as Jericho, the world’s oldest city.

    During the subsequent PPNB from 9000 BC these communities developed into larger villages with farming and animal husbandry as the main source of livelihood, with settlement in the two-story, rectangular house. Man now entered in symbiosis with grain and livestock species, with no opportunity to return to hunter – gatherer societies.

    The area west and north of the plains of the Euphrates and Tigris also saw the emergence of early complex societies in the much later Bronze Age (about 4000 BC). There is evidence of written culture and early state formation in this northern steppe area, although the written formation of the states relatively quickly shifted its center of gravity into the Mesopotamian valley and developed there. The area is therefore in very many writers been named “The Cradle of Civilization.”

    The area has experienced a series of upheavals and new formation of states. When Turkey was formed in the aftermath of the genocide against the Pontic Greeks, Armenians and Assyrians perpetrated by the Young Turks during the First World War it is estimated that two-thirds to three-quarters of all Armenians and Assyrians in the region died, and the Pontic Greeks was pushed to Greece.

    Israel was created out of the Ottoman Empire and the conquering of the Palestinian terretories. The existence of large Arab nation states from the Maghreb to the Levant has since represented a potential threat to Israel which should be neutralised when opportunities arise.

    This line of thinking was at the heart of David Ben Gurion’s policies in the 1950s which sought to exacerbate tensions between Christians and Muslims in the Lebanon for the fruits of acquiring regional influence by the dismembering the country and the possible acquisition of additional territory.

    The Christians are now being systematically targeted for genocide in Syria according to Vatican and other sources with contacts on the ground among the besieged Christian community.

    According to reports by the Vatican’s Fides News Agency collected by the Centre for the Study of Interventionism, the US-backed Free Syrian Army rebels and ever more radical spin-off factions are sacking Christian churches, shooting Christians dead in the street, broadcasting ultimatums that all Christians must be cleansed from the rebel-held villages, and even shooting priests.

    It is now time that the genocide against the Pontic Greeks, Assyrians and Armenians is being recognized, that the Israeli occupation, settlements and violence against the Palestinians stop, and that the various minorities in the area start to live their lifes in peace – without violence and threats from majority populations, or from the West, and then specificially from the US.

    War in the Fertile Crescent

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    Sjur C. Papazian

    Sjur C. Papazian

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  • Transformasjon

  • Sumerian statues

  • Pendant from Mari (modern Tell Hariri, Syria)

  • Sørvest Asia – før og nå

    Den fruktbare halvmåne er en betegnelse på et gammelt fruktbart område nord, øst og vest for den arabiske ørken i Sørvest-Asia. Mesopotamia-dalen og Nil-dalen kommer inn under dette begrepet selv om det i fjellsonen rundt Mesopotamia en naturlig avgrensning i jordbrukshistorisk forstand.

    Som resultat av en rekke unike geografiske faktorer har Den fruktbare halvmåne en imponerende historie av tidlig menneskelig jordbruksaktivitet og kulturdanning. Foruten mange arkeologiske funnsteder med rester av skjeletter og kulturelle levninger så er området først og fremst kjent for dets funnsteder knyttet til jordbrukets opprinnelse og utvikling i den neolittiske tidsalder.

    Det var her, i de skogkledde fjellskråningene i randsonen av dette området, at jordbruket oppsto i et økologisk avgrenset miljø. Den vestlige sonen og områdene rundt øvre Eufrat ga vekst til de første kjente neolittiske jordbruks-samfunnene med små, runde hus, også referert til som førkeramisk neolittisk A, som dateres til like etter 10.000 f.vt. og omfatter steder som Jeriko, som er verdens eldste by.

    Under den påfølgende PPNB fra 9 000 f.vt. utviklet disse samfunnene seg til større landsbyer med dyrking og husdyrhold som viktigste levevei, med tett bebyggelse i to-etasjers, rektangulære hus. Mennesket inngikk nå i symbiose med korn- og husdyrartene, uten mulighet til å vende tilbake til jeger- og sankersamfunnet.

    Området vest og nord for slettelandet ved Eufrat og Tigris så også framveksten av tidlige komplekse samfunn i den langt senere bronsealderen (fra ca 4 000 f.vt.). Det er også tidlige bevis for skriftkultur og tidlige statsdannelser fra samme tid i dette nordlige steppeområdet, selv om de skriftlige statsdannelsene relativt raskt flyttet sitt tyngdepunkt ned i Mesopotamia-dalen og utviklet seg der. Området har derfor hos svært mange forfattere fått betegnelsen «sivilisasjonens vugge».

    Området har opplevd en rekke omveltninger, og nye stasdannelser. Nå sist da staten Tyrkia ble dannet i etterkant av ungtyrkernes folkemord på blant annet de pontiske grekere, armenere og assyrere under den første verdenskrig. Det antas at to tredeler til tre firedeler av alle armenere i regionen døde.

    Det er nå på tide at folkemordet mot de pontiske grekere, assyrere og armenere anerkjennes, at Israels okkupasjon, bosetting og vold palestinerne opphører, samt at de ulike minoritetene i området får leve sine livi fred - uten vold og trusler fra majoritetsbefolkninger eller fra Vesten, og da spesifikt USA.

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The Neanderthals

Posted by Fredsvenn on April 15, 2014

Neanderthal family in a cave (reconstruction)

Infographic (BBC)

Neanderthals’ demise caused by modern human invasion

Neanderthals: how needles and skins gave us the edge on our kissing cousins






The Neanderthals

Paleontologists discover what Neanderthal fashion looked like 44 thousand years ago

Some Neanderthals were probably redheads, a DNA study has shown

Neanderthals ‘were flame-haired’

Were Some Neandertals Brown-Eyed Girls?

The Neanderthals or Neandertals are an extinct species or subspecies of the genus Homo which is closely related to modern humans. They are known from fossils, dating from the Pleistocene period, which have been found in Europe and parts of western and central Asia. The species is named after Neandertal (“Neander’s Valley”), the location in Germany where it was first discovered.

Neanderthals are classified either as a subspecies of Homo sapiens (Homo sapiens neanderthalensis) or as a separate species of the same genus (Homo neanderthalensis).The first humans with proto-Neanderthal traits are believed to have existed in Europe as early as 600,000–350,000 years ago.

When the Neanderthals went extinct is disputed. Fossils found in the Vindija Cave in Croatia have been dated to between 33,000 and 32,000 years old, and Neanderthal artefacts from Gorham’s Cave in Gibraltar are believed to be less than 30,000 years ago, but a recent study has re-dated fossils at two Spanish sites as 45,000 years old, 10,000 years older than previously thought, and may cast doubt on recent dates at other sites.

Cro-Magnon (early-modern-human) skeletal remains showing certain “Neanderthal traits” have been found in Lagar Velho (Portugal) and dated to 24,500 years ago, suggesting that there may have been an extensive admixture of the Cro-Magnon and Neanderthal populations in that region.

A review of supposed archaeological hearths in Europe have suggested humans expanded into cold northern climates without the warmth of fire.

The second major finding of the study was that Neanderthal predecessors pushed into Europe”s colder northern latitudes more than 800,000 years ago without the habitual control of fire, said Wil Roebroeks of Leiden University in the Netherlands.

Archaeologists have long believed the control of fire was necessary for migrating early humans as a way to reduce their energy loss during winters when temperatures plunged below freezing and resources became more scarce.

“This confirms a suspicion we had that went against the opinions of most scientists, who believed it was impossible for humans to penetrate into cold, temperate regions without fire,” said Paola Villa, a curator at the University of Colorado Museum of Natural History.

Recent evidence from an 800,000-year-old site in England known as Happisburgh indicates hominids – likely Homo heidelbergenis, the forerunner of Neanderthals – adapted to chilly environments in the region without fire, Roebroeks said.

The simplest explanation is that there was no habitual use of fire by early humans prior to roughly 400,000 years ago, indicating that fire was not an essential component of the behavior of the first occupants of Europe”s northern latitudes, said Roebroeks.

“It is difficult to imagine these people occupying very cold climates without fire, yet this seems to be the case,” added Roebroeks. The findings have been published in journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. (ANI)

A Neanderthal burial site in Italy reveals hundreds of bird bones mixed in with those of our hominid cousins. The bones had the feathers scraped off, as though the Neanderthals had removed them on purpose – and the only plausible reason they would do that is to wear the feathers. It’s more evidence that Neanderthals were just as cultured as own ancient ancestors.

Obviously, there are some pretty big jumps from “hundreds of bird bones” to “sophisticated ancient culture”, so let’s examine this a bit more closely. Marco Peresani of Italy’s University of Ferrara discovered 660 bird bones among the Neanderthal bones in northern Italy’s Fumane Cave. A significant number of the wing bones had been cut and scraped where the feathers would have once been, which indicates they were intentionally removed.

So what were the Neanderthals using them for? There are three reasonable options: food, weaponry, or culture. Yes, the feathers could have been removed as preparations for eating the rest of the bird, but Peresani says that most of the birds found were poor food sources, and it’s unlikely the Neanderthals would have subsisted on them. Such feathers could also have been removed to be part of arrows, but that technology is not thought to have been invented yet.

That leaves a cultural or ceremonial purpose. The feathers could have formed a part of local Neanderthal fashion, perhaps worn as some form of ornamental dress. The feathers would have been impractical for everyone to be constantly wearing such clothing, which in turn suggests they wore them for special reasons and perhaps only on particular occasions.

This lends credence to the belief that Neanderthals were not the savage, intellectual inferiors of our own Homo sapiens ancestors, but rather a species with their own sophisticated culture. It can hardly be considered definitive – and some critics have quite openly said that Peresani has pushed his data beyond the breaking point – but it’s still some of the best evidence yet for the surprising sophistication of our Neanderthal cousins.

The long travel of Home Sapiens

Svante Paabo talk at NIH

A Species Odyssey

Clan of the Cave Bear

Those Enigmatic Neanderthals

Did climate kill off the Neanderthals?

Freeze ‘condemned Neanderthals’

Neanderthal climate link debated

Neanderthals’ ‘last rock refuge’

‘Neanderthal tools’ found at dig

‘Complexity’ of Neanderthal tools

Neanderthals ‘enjoyed broad menu’

Neanderthals may have been first human species to create cave paintings

Neanderthals ‘distinct from us’

DNA clues to our inner Neanderthal

Neanderthal DNA secrets unlocked

The downside of sex with Neanderthals

Neanderthals live on in DNA of humans

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A Species Odyssey

Posted by Fredsvenn on April 15, 2014

У истоков человечества / A species odyssey, Homo Sapiens, The rise of man


“A Species Odyssey” is a French documentary film directed by Jacques Malaterre, first broadcast on January 7, 2003 on France 3. It portrays the origins of Mankind from the moment the first primate stood up on their hind legs and set off to conquer the African Savanna, to modern Man, setting off to conquer space. 7 million years of triumph fraught with difficulties and extraordinary events that make Man what he is today.

A Species Odyssey


Richard Leakey’s amazing discovery in Kenya completely changed what was previously known about human origins – there wasn’t a single line leading to humans, but many branches and many different species. So, where did we come from? Five million years ago changes in habitat created differences among primates that eventually led to homo Ergaster two million years ago, and then Homo Ergaster evolved even greater changes to become Homo Sapiens. Aired on Discovery Channel in 1999.


APE TO MAN examines the major discoveries that have led us to the understanding of our evolution we have today, including theories that never gained full acceptance in their time, an elaborate hoax that confused the scientific community for years, and the ultimate understanding of the key elements that separate man from apes.

Neanderthal Man

It has long been considered the most compelling question in our history: Where do human beings come from? Although life has existed for millions of years, only in the past century-and-a-half have we begun to use science to explore the ancestral roots of our own species.

The search for the ultimate answer has taken a number of twists and turns, with careers made and broken along the way. Ape to Man is the story of the quest to find the origins of the human race – a quest that spanned more than 150 years of obsessive searching. The search for the origins of humanity is a story of bones and the tales they tell.

It was in 1856 that the first bones of an extinct human ancestor were encountered, unearthed by a crew of unskilled laborers digging for limestone in Western Europe. The find, which would be known as Neanderthal Man, was seeing the light of day for the first time in more than 40,000 years.

At the time, the concept of a previous human species was virtually unthinkable. Yet just a few years later, Charles Darwin’s work The Origin of Species first broached the subject of evolution, and by the end of the nineteenth century, it had become the hottest topic of the age. Adventurers embarked on the search for the Missing Link, the single creature that represented the evolutionary leap from apes to humans.


Neanderthal Museum, Erkrath

Neandertal is a small valley somewhat north of Duesseldorf. In 1856, it became famous for the discovery of prehistoric human remains that were considered the first specimen of Homo Neanderthalensis: the Neanderthal Man. (The “h” was dropped from the official spelling of “Tal” in 1901, but it was kept it the Latin scientific name and accordingly, in the name of the museum in Erkrath).

Neanderthal Museum Erkrath


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A Genetic Journey

Posted by Fredsvenn on April 15, 2014


Humanity’s greatest treasures.

Our stories.

Our wisdom.

Our heritage.

Navigate with us…


- See more at:

File:The Incredible Human Journey.png



The Incredible Human Journey

The Journey of Man: A Genetic Odyssey is a book by Spencer Wells, an American geneticist and anthropologist, in which he uses techniques and theories of genetics and evolutionary biology to trace the geographical dispersal of early human migrations out of Africa. The book was made into a TV documentary in 2003.

This informative film, full of surprising news, is based on the work of Spencer Wells, who is both innovative scientist and enthusiastic host. He and crew scour the world for indigenous people with deep roots in one place, asking for samples of DNA to test, in order to piece together our “big family” genetic tree.

It is a fantastic documentary tracing the earliest human migration on this planet, as shown by our genetic roots. In Indiana Jones mode, Wells tacks down common ancestors and comes up with some surprising candidates which he interviews.

The best parts are when he returns with DNA results and we see the diverse ways in which people and tribes react to the news of what science says about their arrival and relations. View this as adventure travel or as a painless way to begin your genetic literacy.

The Incredible Human Journey  is a five-episode science documentary and accompanying book, written and presented by Alice Roberts. It was first broadcast on BBC television in May and June 2009 in the UK. Dr Alice Roberts travels the globe to discover the incredible story of how humans left Africa to colonize the world.

How did we get here? Following a trail of clues from the latest scientific research, Dr Alice Roberts re-traces the greatest ever journey taken by our ancestors.

Thousands of years ago one small group of our species, Homo sapiens, crossed out of Africa and into the unknown. Their descendants faced baking deserts, sweat-soaked jungles and frozen wildernesses and risked everything on the vast empty ocean.

Within 60,000 years they colonized the whole world… How did they do it? Why do we, their descendants all look so different? And what did we have that meant we were the only human species to survive?

Using the evidence from genetics, fossils, archaeology and climatology, Dr Alice Roberts uncovers five epic routes our ancestors took across the globe and the obstacles and brutal challenges they encountered along the way.

It reveals how our family tree grew and spread out across the world, producing all the variety we see in the human species today – but despite all that diversity, Alice reveals how astonishingly closely related we all are.

Interactive map: Journey of Mankind: The Peopling of the World

The Journey of Man: A Genetic Odyssey

The Incredible Human Journey

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Prehistoric Europeans – People Who Invented Art

Posted by Fredsvenn on April 15, 2014

Venus of Willendorf


Cave of Altamira, near Santander, Spain


Around 40.000 years ago, Prehistoric Europeans became the first people in the world to invent Art… Painting, sculpture, music… The development of these entirely new concepts had one of the most profound influence on the further intellectual evolution of our ancestors.

The oldest works of prehistoric art in the world, dating to around 40.000 years back in time, were found in the Schwäbische Alb, Germany. The Venus of Hohle Fels. And the figurine of a mammoth discovered in the Vogelherd cave Germany. Further artworks include cave paintings (France and Spain). And the very first musical instrument ever found – a flute (Germany).

As more and more of prehistoric Europeans had contact with people of other cultures, it has allowed the spread of such concepts to other places.

Prehistory and Prehistoric Art in Europe

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The Real Robin Hood

Posted by Fredsvenn on April 15, 2014


Robin Hood (spelled Robyn Hode in older manuscripts) is a heroic outlaw in English folklore, and, according to legend, was also a highly skilled archer and swordsman.

Although such behaviour was not part of his original character, since the beginning of the 19th century he has become known for “robbing from the rich and giving to the poor”, assisted by a group of fellow outlaws known as his “Merry Men”.

Traditionally, Robin Hood and his men are depicted wearing Lincoln green clothes. The origin of the legend is asserted by some to have been actual outlaws, or ballads or tales of outlaws.

Robin Hood became a popular folk figure in the medieval period, continuing through to modern literature, films and television. In the earliest sources, Robin Hood is a yeoman, but he was often later portrayed as an aristocrat wrongfully dispossessed of his lands and made into an outlaw by an unscrupulous sheriff.

The oldest references to Robin Hood are not historical records, or even ballads recounting his exploits, but hints and allusions found in various works. From 1228 onward, the names ‘Robinhood’, ‘Robehod’ or ‘Robbehod’ occur in the rolls of several English Justices.

The majority of these references date from the late 13th century. Between 1261 and 1300, there are at least eight references to ‘Rabunhod’ in various regions across England, from Berkshire in the south to York in the north.

Missed in History: Robin Hood

Robin Hood

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A History of Ancient Britain – Orkney’s Stone Age Temple

Posted by Fredsvenn on April 15, 2014


A History of Ancient Britain – Orkney’s Stone Age Temple

Neil Oliver investigates the discovery of a 5,000-year-old temple in Orkney. Built 500 years before Stonehenge, the temple has triggered new thoughts about the beliefs of Neolithic people, turning the map of ancient Britain upside down.

The vast site lies undisturbed until now, set within one of the most important ancient landscapes in the world. There have been some incredible finds, including the first ever discovery of Neolithic painted wall decorations, and even the pigments and paint pots used by Stone Age artists.

Special effects have been used to bring this archaeological evidence to life, creating a three-dimensional model of the entire temple, allowing Neil to walk inside in a bid to understand just how it might have been used.

Long before the Egyptians began the pyramids, Neolithic European man built a vast temple complex at the top of what is now Scotland.

Neolithic discovery: Why Orkney is the centre of ancient Britain

Heart of Neolithic Orkney

Neolithic Scotland: Heart of Orkney World Heritage Sites

Heart of Neolithic Orkney – UNESCO World Heritage Centre

List of prehistoric Stone monuments structures in Great Britain


ANCIENT BRITAIN: Life in Britain & Ireland Before the Romans (Part 2)

Beckhampton Avenue
Birkrigg stone circle
Boskednan stone circle
The Bridestones
Castlerigg stone circle
Doll Tor
Grey Wethers
The Hurlers (stone circles)
Long Meg and Her Daughters
The Longstones
The Merry Maidens
Merrivale, Devon
Mitchell’s Fold
Nine Ladies
Rollright Stones
Stalldown Barrow
Standing Stones of Stenness
Stanton Drew
Stones of Scotland
Temple Wood
Tregeseal East stone circle
Yellowmead Down
Grim’s Ditch
Silbury Hill
The Gop

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Serj Tankian joins demands to investigate Turkey’s role in Kessab attacks

Posted by Fredsvenn on April 15, 2014

Serj Tankian joins demands to investigate Turkey's role in Kessab attacks

World famous musician Serj Tankian called to ask members of U.S. Congress to investigate Turkey’s role in attacks on Armenian-populated Kessab.

“Please join me in asking our members of congress to demand that the Senate and House intelligence committees investigate Turkey’s role in the Al Qaeda linked attacks on the city of #Kessab in Syria, where more than 2000 Armenians were driven from their homes. These people were all survivors of the #ArmenianGenocide who had settled there after the First World War,” he wrote on Facebook.

In the early morning on March 21, armed militants from the Jabhat al-Nusra Islamic terrorist group infiltrated into northern Syria’s Latakia Governorate, which is predominantly inhabited by Armenians and Alawites, from four directions. Two large groups of terrorists had launched the attack from Turkey. About 600 Kessab-Armenian families are currently sheltered in Latakia city.

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Lost Tribe Of Palau

Posted by Fredsvenn on April 15, 2014

Skull may identify tiny islanders who shrank to survive

Lost Tribe Of Palau

Shown here is one specimen with a brow ridge found in Ucheliungs Cave in Palau in 2006 (center), set between a model of a modern human female skull (left), and a model of the skull of Homo Floresiensis.


An incredible find on a tiny chain of islands in Micronesia provides what at first appeared to be human bones, but archaeologists quickly realised they were too small and unusual. The problem is the bones are only a few thousand years old… Was it a new species of previously unknown human? Was it a different species entirely?

The biggest problem is the Islands of Palau are so remote there is no explanation as to how these human-like creatures ever arrived there in the first place. One of the most remarkable archaeological finds in history, the lost tribe of Palau contains a secret that changes our entire view of evolution…

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Words of Howard Zinn

Posted by Fredsvenn on April 15, 2014


Words: Howard Zinn

Howard Zinn, 1922-2010 was an activist, historian, political scientist, social critic, playwright, and author of the bestseller A People’s History of the United States.

Zinn has been active in the Civil Rights, anti-war, and many other progressive movements in the United States. His work approaches United States history from a different perspective, focusing largely on the history of class struggle throughout our nation’s story.

The original “People’s History,” has expanded in many ways including, Voices, which acts as a companion text full of primary source information and personal accounts of U.S. History, and A Young People’s History of the United States.

His work is considered a must read for anyone seeking to analyze bias and perspective in our history, as well as anyone who is interested in activism or social awareness beyond the medium of traditional text books.

Howard Zinn

Howard Zinn Quotes

A People’s History Of The United States

Howard Zinn – Zinn Education Project

Latest news from

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The Solutrean hypothesis

Posted by Fredsvenn on April 15, 2014





The Solutrean hypothesis

The Solutrean hypothesis contends that Europeans may have been in Americas before the arrival of a later wave of people from Asia. Stone tool technology of the Solutrean culture in prehistoric Europe may have later influenced the development of the Clovis tool-making culture in the Americas. Some of its key proponents include Dr. Dennis Stanford of the Smithsonian Institution and Dr. Bruce Bradley of the University of Exeter.

In this hypothesis, peoples associated with the Solutrean culture migrated from Ice Age Europe to North America, bringing their methods of making stone tools with them and providing the basis for later Clovis technology found throughout North America. The hypothesis rests upon particular similarities in Solutrean and Clovis technology that have no known counterparts in Eastern Asia, Siberia or Beringia, areas from which or through which early Americans are known to have migrated.


Solutrean culture was dominant in Europe and present-day France and Spain from roughly 21,000 to 17,000 years ago. It was known for its distinctive toolmaking characterized by bifacial, pressure-flaked points. Traces of the Solutrean tool-making industry disappear completely from Europe around 15,000 years ago, when it was replaced by the less complex stone tools of the Magdalenian culture.

Clovis tools are typified by a distinctive rock spear point, known as the Clovis point. Like Solutrean points, Clovis points are thin and bifacial; they share so-called “overshot” flaking characteristics that yield wide, flat blades. Clovis tool-making technology seems to appear in the archaeological record in North America roughly 13,500 years ago, and similar predecessors in Asia or Alaska have not yet been discovered.

Atlantic crossing

The hypothesis proposes that Ice Age Europeans could have crossed the North Atlantic along the edge of the pack ice that extended from the Atlantic coast of France to North America during the last glacial maximum. The model envisions these people making the crossing in small watercraft, using skills similar to those of the modern Inuit people, hauling out on ice floes at night, getting fresh water by melting iceberg ice or the first-frozen parts of sea ice, getting food by catching seals and fish, and using seal blubber as heating fuel.

Transitional styles

Supporters of the hypothesis suggest that stone tools found at Cactus Hill (an early American site in Virginia) indicate a transitional style between the Clovis and Solutrean cultures. Artifacts from this site are estimated to date from 17,000 to 15,000 years ago, although some researchers dispute their definitive age. Other sites that may indicate transitional, pre-Clovis occupation include the Page-Ladson site in Florida and the Meadowcroft rockshelter in Pennsylvania.

MtDNA Haplogroup X

The idea is also supported by mitochondrial DNA analysis insofar as the fact that some members of some native North American tribes share a common yet distant maternal ancestry with some present-day individuals in Europe identified by mtDNA Haplogroup X. Unlike other Native American mtDNA Haplogroups A, B, C and D, Haplogroup X is not common in Northeastern Asia or Siberia (although occurence of Haplogroup X2 of more recent origin has been identified in the Altai Republic). The New World haplogroup X DNA (now called subgroup X2a) is as different from any of the Old World X2 lineages as they are from each other, indicating a very ancient origin. Although haplogroup X occurs only at a frequency of about 3% for the total current indigenous population of the Americas, it is a major haplogroup in northeastern North America, where among the Algonquian peoples it comprises up to 25% of mtDNA types.

Kennewick Man

Kennewick Man

Windover Archeological Site

European colonization of the Americas

Timeline of the colonization of North America

Solutrean hypothesis – Metapedia

Solutrean hypothesis

Solutrean hypothesis

The Solutrean-Clovis Connection

Solutrean Theory

SOLUTREANS: The First Ancient Settlers in North America

New evidence supports/denies the “Solutrean hypothesis”

Genetic Study Kills Off Solutrean Hypothesis


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