Cradle of Civilization

A Blog about the Birth of Our Civilisation and Development

  • Fredsvenn:


    The Fertile Crescent is a term for an old fertile area north, east and west of the Arabian Desert in Southwest Asia. The Mesopotamian valley and the Nile valley fall under this term even though the mountain zone around Mesopotamia is the natural zone for the transition in a historical sense.

    As a result of a number of unique geographical factors the Fertile Crescent have an impressive history of early human agricultural activity and culture. Besides the numerous archaeological sites with remains of skeletons and cultural relics the area is known primarily for its excavation sites linked to agricultural origins and development of the Neolithic era.

    It was here, in the forested mountain slopes of the periphery of this area, that agriculture originated in an ecologically restricted environment. The western zone and areas around the upper Euphrates gave growth to the first known Neolithic farming communities with small, round houses , also referred to as Pre Pottery Neolithic A (PPNA) cultures, which dates to just after 10,000 BC and include areas such as Jericho, the world’s oldest city.

    During the subsequent PPNB from 9000 BC these communities developed into larger villages with farming and animal husbandry as the main source of livelihood, with settlement in the two-story, rectangular house. Man now entered in symbiosis with grain and livestock species, with no opportunity to return to hunter – gatherer societies.

    The area west and north of the plains of the Euphrates and Tigris also saw the emergence of early complex societies in the much later Bronze Age (about 4000 BC). There is evidence of written culture and early state formation in this northern steppe area, although the written formation of the states relatively quickly shifted its center of gravity into the Mesopotamian valley and developed there. The area is therefore in very many writers been named “The Cradle of Civilization.”

    The area has experienced a series of upheavals and new formation of states. When Turkey was formed in the aftermath of the genocide against the Pontic Greeks, Armenians and Assyrians perpetrated by the Young Turks during the First World War it is estimated that two-thirds to three-quarters of all Armenians and Assyrians in the region died, and the Pontic Greeks was pushed to Greece.

    Israel was created out of the Ottoman Empire and the conquering of the Palestinian terretories. The existence of large Arab nation states from the Maghreb to the Levant has since represented a potential threat to Israel which should be neutralised when opportunities arise.

    This line of thinking was at the heart of David Ben Gurion’s policies in the 1950s which sought to exacerbate tensions between Christians and Muslims in the Lebanon for the fruits of acquiring regional influence by the dismembering the country and the possible acquisition of additional territory.

    The Christians are now being systematically targeted for genocide in Syria according to Vatican and other sources with contacts on the ground among the besieged Christian community.

    According to reports by the Vatican’s Fides News Agency collected by the Centre for the Study of Interventionism, the US-backed Free Syrian Army rebels and ever more radical spin-off factions are sacking Christian churches, shooting Christians dead in the street, broadcasting ultimatums that all Christians must be cleansed from the rebel-held villages, and even shooting priests.

    It is now time that the genocide against the Pontic Greeks, Assyrians and Armenians is being recognized, that the Israeli occupation, settlements and violence against the Palestinians stop, and that the various minorities in the area start to live their lifes in peace – without violence and threats from majority populations, or from the West, and then specificially from the US.

    War in the Fertile Crescent
    http://aratta.wordpress.com/2013/11/13/war-in-the-fertile-crescent

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    Sjur C. Papazian

    Sjur C. Papazian

  • Categories

  • Transformasjon

  • Sumerian statues

  • Pendant from Mari (modern Tell Hariri, Syria)

  • Sørvest Asia – før og nå

    Den fruktbare halvmåne er en betegnelse på et gammelt fruktbart område nord, øst og vest for den arabiske ørken i Sørvest-Asia. Mesopotamia-dalen og Nil-dalen kommer inn under dette begrepet selv om det i fjellsonen rundt Mesopotamia en naturlig avgrensning i jordbrukshistorisk forstand.

    Som resultat av en rekke unike geografiske faktorer har Den fruktbare halvmåne en imponerende historie av tidlig menneskelig jordbruksaktivitet og kulturdanning. Foruten mange arkeologiske funnsteder med rester av skjeletter og kulturelle levninger så er området først og fremst kjent for dets funnsteder knyttet til jordbrukets opprinnelse og utvikling i den neolittiske tidsalder.

    Det var her, i de skogkledde fjellskråningene i randsonen av dette området, at jordbruket oppsto i et økologisk avgrenset miljø. Den vestlige sonen og områdene rundt øvre Eufrat ga vekst til de første kjente neolittiske jordbruks-samfunnene med små, runde hus, også referert til som førkeramisk neolittisk A, som dateres til like etter 10.000 f.vt. og omfatter steder som Jeriko, som er verdens eldste by.

    Under den påfølgende PPNB fra 9 000 f.vt. utviklet disse samfunnene seg til større landsbyer med dyrking og husdyrhold som viktigste levevei, med tett bebyggelse i to-etasjers, rektangulære hus. Mennesket inngikk nå i symbiose med korn- og husdyrartene, uten mulighet til å vende tilbake til jeger- og sankersamfunnet.

    Området vest og nord for slettelandet ved Eufrat og Tigris så også framveksten av tidlige komplekse samfunn i den langt senere bronsealderen (fra ca 4 000 f.vt.). Det er også tidlige bevis for skriftkultur og tidlige statsdannelser fra samme tid i dette nordlige steppeområdet, selv om de skriftlige statsdannelsene relativt raskt flyttet sitt tyngdepunkt ned i Mesopotamia-dalen og utviklet seg der. Området har derfor hos svært mange forfattere fått betegnelsen «sivilisasjonens vugge».

    Området har opplevd en rekke omveltninger, og nye stasdannelser. Nå sist da staten Tyrkia ble dannet i etterkant av ungtyrkernes folkemord på blant annet de pontiske grekere, armenere og assyrere under den første verdenskrig. Det antas at to tredeler til tre firedeler av alle armenere i regionen døde.

    Det er nå på tide at folkemordet mot de pontiske grekere, assyrere og armenere anerkjennes, at Israels okkupasjon, bosetting og vold palestinerne opphører, samt at de ulike minoritetene i området får leve sine livi fred - uten vold og trusler fra majoritetsbefolkninger eller fra Vesten, og da spesifikt USA.

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The Solutrean hypothesis

Posted by Fredsvenn on April 15, 2014

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The Solutrean hypothesis

The Solutrean hypothesis contends that Europeans may have been in Americas before the arrival of a later wave of people from Asia. Stone tool technology of the Solutrean culture in prehistoric Europe may have later influenced the development of the Clovis tool-making culture in the Americas. Some of its key proponents include Dr. Dennis Stanford of the Smithsonian Institution and Dr. Bruce Bradley of the University of Exeter.

In this hypothesis, peoples associated with the Solutrean culture migrated from Ice Age Europe to North America, bringing their methods of making stone tools with them and providing the basis for later Clovis technology found throughout North America. The hypothesis rests upon particular similarities in Solutrean and Clovis technology that have no known counterparts in Eastern Asia, Siberia or Beringia, areas from which or through which early Americans are known to have migrated.

Characteristics

Solutrean culture was dominant in Europe and present-day France and Spain from roughly 21,000 to 17,000 years ago. It was known for its distinctive toolmaking characterized by bifacial, pressure-flaked points. Traces of the Solutrean tool-making industry disappear completely from Europe around 15,000 years ago, when it was replaced by the less complex stone tools of the Magdalenian culture.

Clovis tools are typified by a distinctive rock spear point, known as the Clovis point. Like Solutrean points, Clovis points are thin and bifacial; they share so-called “overshot” flaking characteristics that yield wide, flat blades. Clovis tool-making technology seems to appear in the archaeological record in North America roughly 13,500 years ago, and similar predecessors in Asia or Alaska have not yet been discovered.

Atlantic crossing

The hypothesis proposes that Ice Age Europeans could have crossed the North Atlantic along the edge of the pack ice that extended from the Atlantic coast of France to North America during the last glacial maximum. The model envisions these people making the crossing in small watercraft, using skills similar to those of the modern Inuit people, hauling out on ice floes at night, getting fresh water by melting iceberg ice or the first-frozen parts of sea ice, getting food by catching seals and fish, and using seal blubber as heating fuel.

Transitional styles

Supporters of the hypothesis suggest that stone tools found at Cactus Hill (an early American site in Virginia) indicate a transitional style between the Clovis and Solutrean cultures. Artifacts from this site are estimated to date from 17,000 to 15,000 years ago, although some researchers dispute their definitive age. Other sites that may indicate transitional, pre-Clovis occupation include the Page-Ladson site in Florida and the Meadowcroft rockshelter in Pennsylvania.

MtDNA Haplogroup X

The idea is also supported by mitochondrial DNA analysis insofar as the fact that some members of some native North American tribes share a common yet distant maternal ancestry with some present-day individuals in Europe identified by mtDNA Haplogroup X. Unlike other Native American mtDNA Haplogroups A, B, C and D, Haplogroup X is not common in Northeastern Asia or Siberia (although occurence of Haplogroup X2 of more recent origin has been identified in the Altai Republic). The New World haplogroup X DNA (now called subgroup X2a) is as different from any of the Old World X2 lineages as they are from each other, indicating a very ancient origin. Although haplogroup X occurs only at a frequency of about 3% for the total current indigenous population of the Americas, it is a major haplogroup in northeastern North America, where among the Algonquian peoples it comprises up to 25% of mtDNA types.

Kennewick Man

Kennewick Man

Windover Archeological Site

European colonization of the Americas

Timeline of the colonization of North America

Solutrean hypothesis – Metapedia

Solutrean hypothesis

Solutrean hypothesis

The Solutrean-Clovis Connection

Solutrean Theory

SOLUTREANS: The First Ancient Settlers in North America

New evidence supports/denies the “Solutrean hypothesis”

Genetic Study Kills Off Solutrean Hypothesis

 

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Armenia, the Land of Noah

Posted by Fredsvenn on April 14, 2014

http://newsps.ru/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/ARMENIA-The-Land-Of-Noah.jpg

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We now have a ‘high chance’ to clone the woolly mammoth

Posted by Fredsvenn on April 14, 2014

Discovery of blood in creature frozen for 43,000 years is seen as major breakthrough by international team.

Siberian scientists announce they now have a ‘high chance’ to clone the woolly mammoth

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Svante Paabo talk at NIH

Posted by Fredsvenn on April 14, 2014

http://blogs.plos.org/onscienceblogs/files/2014/03/paabo-n-neandertal.jpg

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March 27, 2014 – Dr. Svante Pääbo, director of the Department of Genetics at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, has helped us understand human evolution by decoding DNA isolated from the dry bones of our ancestors. Using ancient DNA he demonstrated that Neanderthals interbred with humans when modern humans left Africa 50-80k years ago.

A very interesting bit is from 18:30 and forward, in which he discusses the 45,000y BP modern human from Ust-Ishim. Here is a screenshot from this part of the talk (20:32):

According to Dr. Paabo, Ust-Ishim has longer Neandertal chunks than modern humans and this can be used to estimate that the admixture with Neandertals happened 331+/-99 generations before its time of 45,000y BP, or around 50-60,000y BP.

The coalescence of mtDNA haplogroups M and N has been estimated as ~50 and ~59ky BP respectively using modern human variation, so this seems quite compatible with that.

This pretty much proves that there were modern humans in Eurasia before the Upper Paleolithic revolution and disproves Richard Klein’s theory that modern humans together with UP technologies spread Out-of-Africa only after 50,000 years ago.

In another study, Dr. Pääbo sequenced the DNA from a pinky bone found in a Siberian cave. Comparing this DNA to that of Neanderthal and humans his team determined this bone came from previously unknown species of hominid, now called Denisovans. Dr. Pääbo’s lecture covered these stories and other tales written in archaic DNA.

Svante Pääbo

Neanderthal Man

Svante Paabo talk at NIH

Neanderthal Man: In Search of Lost Genomes by Svante Pääbo – review

Svante Pääbo: the DNA hunter taking us back to our roots

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Clan of the Cave Bear

Posted by Fredsvenn on April 14, 2014

http://www.talltalestruetales.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/04/clan-of-the-cave-bear_l1.jpg

http://www.geocities.ws/mtuncman/necb24.jpg

clan

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Earth’s Children, by Jean M Auel

Some beautiful drawings and paintings made by people in deviantart’s fanclub “The Ninith Cave”. link: http://the-ninth-cave.deviantart.com/

Some images of the Beltane festival in Endinburgh; official book illustrations by Geoff Taylor. Searched the rest on google!

Music: Unda by Faun

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Earth’s Children

Earth’s Children is a series of speculative alternative historical fiction novels written by Jean M. Auel set circa 30,000 years before present. There are six novels in the series. Auel had previously mentioned in interviews that there would be a seventh novel, but publicity announcements for the sixth confirmed it would be the final book in the sequence.

The series is set in Europe during the Upper Paleolithic era, after the date of the first ceramics discovered, but before the last advance of glaciers. The books focus on the period of co-existence between Cro-Magnons and Neanderthals.

As a whole, the series is a tale of personal discovery: coming-of-age, invention, cultural complexities, and, beginning with the second book, explicit romantic sex. It tells the story of Ayla, an orphaned Cro-Magnon girl who is adopted and raised by a tribe of Neanderthals and who later embarks on a journey to find the Others (her own kind), meeting along the way her romantic interest and supporting co-protagonist, Jondalar.

The story arc in part comprises a travel tale, in which the two lovers journey from the region of Ukraine to Jondalar’s home in what is now France, along an indirect route up the Danub River valley.

In the third and fourth works, they meet various groups of Cro-Magnons and encounter their culture and technology. The couple finally return to southwestern France and Jondalar’s people in the fifth novel.

The series includes a highly-detailed focus on botany, herbology, herbal medicine, archaeology and anthropology, but it also features substantial amounts of romance, coming-of-age crises, and — employing significant literary license — the attribution of certain advances and inventions to the protagonists.

In addition, Auel’s series incorporates a number of recent archeological and anthropological theories. It also suggested the notion of Sapiens-Neanderthal interbreeding. Although in recent years the sequencing of Neandertal mitochondrial DNA first indicated that it was highly improbable that Neandertals contributed to the human genome, further research of the human genome has revealed conclusively that Neanderthals did in fact interbreed with non-African humans.

The author’s treatment of unconventional sexual practices (which are central to her hypothesized nature-centered religions) has earned the series the twentieth place on the American Library Association’s 100 Most Frequently Challenged Books of 1990-2000.

Earth’s Children

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Clan of the Cave Bear Part 2

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The Real You

Posted by Fredsvenn on April 14, 2014

Finding the Real You

achieve-greatness02

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500 Nations – The Story of Native Americans

Posted by Fredsvenn on April 14, 2014

http://newschoolhistory.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/09/indians-500nations.jpg

http://fasab.files.wordpress.com/2013/07/500-nations.jpg?w=699&h=393

The American Indian Holocaust, known as the “500 year war” and the “World’s Longest Holocaust In The History Of Mankind And Loss Of Human Lives.”

Death Toll: 95,000,000 to 114,000,000

American Holocaust: D. Stannard (Oxford Press, 1992) - “over 100 million killed” “[Christopher] Columbus personally murdered half a million Natives”

“Hitler’s concept of concentration camps as well as the practicality of genocide owed much, so he claimed, to his studies of English and United States history. He admired the camps for Boer prisoners in South Africa and for the Indians in the wild west; and often praised to his inner circle the efficiency of America’s extermination – by starvation and uneven combat – of the red savages who could not be tamed by captivity.”

– P. 202, “Adolph Hitler” by John Toland

Native Americans have the highest mortality rate of any U.S. minority because of U.S. action and policy. The biggest killers though were smallpox, measles, influenza, whooping cough, diphtheria, typhus, bubonic plague, cholera, and scarlet fever. All imported by the Europeans colonists.

Native American Genocide

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500 Nations is an eight-part documentary on the Native Americans of North and Central America, presentd by Kevin Costner. The documentary takes us from pre-European contact to the end of the 19th century and tells the dramatic and tragic story of the Native American nations\’ desperate attempts to retain their way of life against overwhelming odds.

Much of the information comes from text, eyewitnesses, pictorials, and computer graphics. The series was hosted by Kevin Costner, narrated by Gregory Harrison, and directed by Jack Leustig. It included the voice talents of Eric Schweig, Gordon Tootoosis, Wes Studi, Cástulo Guerra, Tony Plana, Edward James Olmos, Patrick Stewart, Gary Farmer, Tom Jackson, Tantoo Cardinal, Dante Basco, Sheldon Peters Wolfchild, Tim Bottoms, Michael Horse, Graham Greene, Floyd Red Crow Westerman, Amy Madigan, Frank Salsedo, and Kurtwood Smith. The series was written by Jack Leustig, Roberta Grossman, Lee Miller (head of research), and W. T. Morgan, with Dr. John M. D. Pohl.

“The truth is, we have a story worth talking about. We have a history worth celebrating. Long before the first Europeans arrived here, there were some 500 nations already in North America. They blanketed the continent from coast to coast, from Central America to the Arctic. There were tens of millions of people here, speaking over 300 languages. Many of them lived in beautiful cities, among the largest and most advanced in the world.

In the coming hours, 500 Nations looks back on those ancient cultures, how they lived, and how many survived…. What you’re about to see is what happened. It’s not all that happened, and it’s not always pleasant. We can’t change that. We can’t turn back the clock. But we can open our eyes and give the first nations of this land the recognition and respect they deserve: their rightful place in the history of the world.”

Kevin Costner

A 468 page book by the same name, published in 1994, containing far more detailed information, is based upon the documentary.

Episode 1: Wounded Knee Legacy and The Ancestors

The Ancestors explores three early North American cultures, including the 800-room Pueblo Bonito in the arid southwest, the Cliff Palace at Mesa Verde, and Cahokia, the largest city in the U.S. before 1800.

Episode 2: Mexico

A history of the native nations of Mexico from pre-Columbian times, through the period of European contact and colonization, including the rise and fall of the Toltecs and the growth of Tenochtitlan, the capital city of the Aztec empire.

Episode 3: Clash of Cultures

As Native nations defy a plundering advance of Spanish expeditions in the Caribbean and what will become the southeastern United States, two undefeatable attacks, muskets and disease, cause thousands of deaths.

Episode 4: Invasion of the Coast

Tensions rise as more foreigners arrive in North America, and affect the lives of native peoples. At Jamestown, the story of the Powhatan princess, Pocahontas, unfolds. Thanksgiving at Plymouth leads to a bloody colonial Indian war in 1675.

Episode 5: Cauldron of War

European powers fight to control American resources, turning native homelands into a Cauldron of War. Many indigenous nations side with France, but when the defeated country leaves its native allies vulnerable, a determined leader, Pontiac, rises to prominence.

Episode 6: Removal

Being forced to follow the Trail of Tears displaces Native Americans even though they adopt American ways. Shawnee leader Tecumseh sparks a return to traditional ways but The Indian Removal Act is enforced in 1830. Many stoically accept; others resist.

It has been reported that huge buffalo were seen throughout this episode in the background, in the forms of shadows and ghost-like figures.

Episode 7: Roads Across the Plains

Lifestyles of native peoples of the Great Plains end as American settlers destroy huge buffalo herds. Though native leaders pursue peace, they are massacred at Sand Creek. The massacre provokes severe repercussions.

Episode 8: Attack on Culture

Legislative attacks on native ways included the disbanding of communal land. Today, native cultures are allowed to renew, and to remember the lifestyles of America\’s original people, and the hardships they endured.

500 Nations

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Death Of The Iceman

Posted by Fredsvenn on April 14, 2014

Ötzi – ismannen fra steinalderen og mtDNA haplogruppe U8/K

Haplogroup G

The spread of haplogroup G2a in Europe

Haplogroup G2a – Cardium Pottery culture, Ozieri culture, Bell-Beaker culture and Bonnanaro culture

Old Europe 2

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Secrets Of The Stone Age

Posted by Fredsvenn on April 14, 2014

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A three-part series in which anthropologist and author Richard Rudgley sets off on an epic journey back in time and around the world to discover the real roots of civilization.

Richard Rudgley (born 1961) is a British author and television presenter. He specializes on the topics of the usage of hallucinogens and intoxicants in society. He has also written about the Stone Age and about Paganism. Rudgley completed a BA in Social Anthropology and Religious Studies and went on to do a M. St. and M. Phil. in Ethnology and Museum Ethnography at Oxford University. He is married and lives in London

The Wisdom of the Stones – Richard travels from New York to the Pyramids and beyond in search of evidence of writing, medicine and architecture from the Neolithic or New Stone Age (8000 – 3000 BC) – way before conventional history says they existed. It was the time when human beings embarked on a bold experiment – settling down in fixed communities – and establishing a style of living that still exists today.

Frozen In Time – Richard Rudgley continues his journey back in time and discovers that woolly mammoths and cave paintings aren’t the only relics of the Ice Age. In his travels through the Upper Palaeolithic (or Ice Age), Richard finds beauty, social complexity and technological skill.

He visits a 35,000-year-old bead factory – maybe the first ever production line – and builds up a collection of beautifully sculpted female figurines – fertility symbols or early pornography? And he tunnels deep into the earth in search of the spiritual secrets of our Ice Age ancestors – in full glory on the painted walls of their cave-cathedrals.

The Human Story – In this final programme of the series, Richard Rudgley meets Neanderthal Man – our supposedly stupid cousin who became extinct 30,000 years ago.

Richard travels to Israel where early moderns and Neanderthals coincided for tens of thousands of years. And he visits Portugal, where the skeleton of a child caused an international outcry when it was suggested he might be the hybrid offspring of Neanderthal and modern interbreeding.

Richard Rudgley

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The Bible’s Buried Secrets

Posted by Fredsvenn on April 14, 2014

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